Concepts of Tourism and Tourists
Why people travel
real or perceived need to escape from the routine situations of home, work and familiarity of physical or social environments

Reasons people travel
desire to escape the mundane
pursue relaxation and recuperation
opportunity for play
strengthen family bonds
prestige of destination
social interaction
wish fulfillment

Tourist behaviour
reveals tourist motivations
Graburn’s “tourist inversions”
shifts in behavior away from the norm towards a temporary opposite
Think about your last vacation - what did you do that was completely different from your usual life?

Tourist Inversions
Dimension: Environment
Continua: Winter vs. Summer, cold vs. warmth, crowds vs. isolation, modern vs. ancient, home vs. foreign
Climate and opportunities for activities such as skiing, swimming
Tourist Inversions
Dimension: Lifestyle
Continua: Thrift vs. indulgence, affluence vs. simplicity, work vs. leisure
Expenditure increased on events or purchases
Tourist Inversions
Dimension: Formality
Continua: Rigid vs. flexible, formal vs. informal, restriction vs. license
Dress codes, social behaviors and routines replaced
Tourist Inversions
Dimension: Health
Continua: Gluttony vs. diet, stress vs. tranquility, sloth vs. exercise, age vs. rejuvenation
Increased consumption, relaxation as relief from routine stress and active holidays as alternative to sedentary daily lives

Applying Graburn’s Inversions
only some dimensions will be subject to reversal in any one trip
explains why same people take different trips at different times of the year to different places
but there are also different degrees of departure from the norm, not explained

Push-Pull Effect
Iso-Ahola’s model of the social psychology of tourism
Escape from routine environments (Push)
Rewards from the environments visited (Pull)

Personal Characteristics of Tourists
Plog’s psychographic profile
populations arranged along a personality continuum
Psychocentrics - self-inhibited, non-adventurous
Allocentrics - confident, naturally adventurous, seek variety and experience

Tourist Choices
However, Plog’s model does not explain extrinsic and intrinsic motivations (caused by external circumstances or internal characteristics)
Pearce suggests people have a “travel career” where they change “levels” during their lives
changes may be prevented by money, health or other people

Tourism Typologies
many tendencies exist simultaneously
types of tourist however show that some tend to occur together
allow us recognize different types of tourism (e.g. business tourism)
anticipate motives and the impact on structural elements (e.g. hotels

Organized Mass Tourists:
package holiday with little contact with host community
Individual Mass Tourists:
like organized mass tourist but wishes to visit sites not covered in packages
arrange travel independently and want to experience the social and cultural life of the destination
wants no contact with other tourists and seeks to live with the host community
Points about conceptual models
Remember, all of these factors occur to a great or lesser degree
Push-Pull, psychological preferences and aging factors occur simultaneously
Although can explain much about tourism and leisure, are too general to specifically predict patterns of consumption

Conclusions - People’s motivations change
over their lifetimes
at different times of the year
due to extrinsic factors (such as money and other people)
and intrinsic factors (such as personality types)