The Business Web in Russia: Usability for the Western User


Bob Travica
Blaise Cronin

February 1996

Paper presented at the 59th Annual Meeting of ASIS, Baltimor, MD, Oct.21-24, 1996

Note: This study was supported in part by a research grant from the Information Science-SLIS, Indiana University


An investigation of the part of the World Wide Web (Web) devoted to business purposes in Russia was conducted. The goal was to estimate usability of this Web for the Western user by focusing on the following dimensions: type of businesses for which Web sites are used, language used on sites, communication capability of sites, ordering capability of sites, and response time of site servers. The findings suggest that the Russian Web is more usable in terms of language used and communication capability than ordering capability and response time. Neverthless, the emergence and the state of the Russian Web signal significant telecommunication and market developments is Russia.

1. Introduction

A Russian telecommunications entrepreneur on a business trip to Western Europe complained about having tremendous problems accessing his electronic mail; as he put it, he felt "absolutely disconnected from the world" (Strassel, 1995). Three years ago such an anecdote would have been unthinkable: a Russian entrepreneur, a business trip in Western Europe, and a complaint about computer network services which were introduced to Russia less than five years ago. This vignette provides the context for the present study of business-related aspects of the World Wide Web in Russia. The Web is a brand new phenomenon in Russia, and as such a useful indicator of developments in both the telecommunications sector and the economy as a whole.

The purpose of this study is to explore business-related sites on the Russian Web. The importance of the Russian business-related Web stems in part from the importance of Russia itself, being the major country to emerge form the Soviet Union in 1991. In spite of its current economic and social disarray, Russia will likely continue to play an important international role. With this in mind, there is value in studying the Russian business Web, in that it can be seen as a mirror for both telecommunications and broader economic developments in the country. The implosion of the Soviet Union resulted in the collapse of the voluntaristic, party-government controlled economy. As a consequence, Russia began the transition to a market economy. The telecommunications sector, more specifically computer networks, has been one of the pioneering areas for market reforms and is characterized by significant foreign investment, internal competition and elements of deregulation. Computer networking, in turn, has supported the development of other businesses by providing new channels of domestic communication (Travica & Hogan, 1992).

The genesis of the business Web may signal a new evolutionary phase in both Russian computer networks and economic development. Networks are entering a more mature phase with the spread of the TCP/IP (Internet) standard, which appears to be a de facto international standard, while the economy is opening up to the outside world. Both developments are mirrored in the growth of the business Web (see Cronin and McKim, 1996).

Our study has number of limitations. One has to do with the novelty of the phenomenon studied. To illustrate, the Internet was introduced in Russia in 1991, although OSI-ISO computer networks do have a longer history in the country (see Travica & Hogan, 1992). As a result, there is almost no previous research on the business Web in Russia. Another limitation is the dynamic, "real-time" character of the study. Consequently, we have defined our goals modestly: (1) describe the Russian business Web; and (2) test several aspects of the Web from a Western user's perspective.

2. Methodology

This study is based on observations made in September and October 1995. It consists of three stages: (1) browsing of Russian business Web sites; (2) sample selection; and (3) examination of sample sites.

2.1 Dimensions Studied

We studied the following dimensions of business Web sites: (1) type of businesses; (2) language used; (3) communication capability; (4) ordering capability; and (5) server responsiveness. In addition, we observed navigation and aesthetic aspects. (Dimensions are defined in Table 5 in Appendix). Dimensions 2 through 5 build on the general concept of usability which refers to acceptance of an information system (Nielsen, 1993). We believe that both these, along with the first dimension, possess an intuitive appeal.

2.2 The Sample

Using a variety of Internet search engines we identified 149 Web sites. A Web site refers to a home page and the pages hyperlinked to it that together have an identifiable owner; in contrast, a Web server refers to the hardware-storage medium which can host more than one Web page (e.g., the server of the Moscow-based Institute for Commercial Engineering contains several sites--its own, plus the sites of some other firms). The count of 149 sites most likely was not definitive. Site identification was problematic for reasons such as the reliability of search engines (e.g., computing centers from several universities were identified by the search engines, but it was not possible to determine whether the list was complete). Another problem was posed by the centralized design of the St. Petersburg-based server that appeared to be based on the metaphor of a general information bureau, and thus had hypertext links to pages with information from various domains (tourist attractions, business, legislature, personals, etc.). In this case, it was difficult to distinguish between various sites (e.g., on-line magazines were sometimes difficult to separate from the news compilations provided by a different site owner). Although the number of 149 sites was an approximation, our best estimate is that the total number is not much higher, perhaps around two hundred.

Once the list of Web sites was identified, an effort was made to select those related to business. Business sites were considered those whose owners were non-governmental firms (e.g., telecommunications providers, software and hardware vendors, banks, and online magazines) and/or which provided information related to business activities (business law, news, bids and offers, banking, firm addresses, price lists, advertisements). Negative conceptualization also helped in the classification: a business-related site was considered to be one that was not related to the academy, research or government. After several iterations, we identified 54 business-related Web sites in Russia, and estimated that this number represented at least 80% of the population. (For example, we ran a check against hot-lists stored on Russian Web sites only to identify some additional telecommunications sites.) Determining an exact number of sites was impossible for the reasons mentioned above. The inaccessibility of certain sites was also a problem. Since the telecommunications providers were dominant in the sampling frame, weights were assigned to less frequent types of organizations to increase their chance of being selected; a random sample of 35 sites (65% of the sampling frame) was subsequently selected. The sample drawn appears to be representative in terms of kinds of organizations and their relative proportions.

2.3 Data Collection and Analysis

Data on several dimensions (see Table 5 in Appendix) were collected by browsing the business Web sites (the latest version of the Netscape browser was used). Each site was visited several times in the period October-November 1995. The data on response times were collected during a seven-day period in October 1995.

All the dimensions studied are categorical, except for response time. Since most of the categories are straightforward (e.g, the language used), no particular data analysis technique was necessary for determining their values. Type of business, however, required a more systematic approach which employed successive iterations and revisions of coding similar to the Glasser and Strauss (1976) grounded theory approach. Although ordinary declarations of a site's purpose, which were found on almost all sites, should have made it easy to determine this category, it was only useful when the organization's business was unambiguous and unidimensional (e.g., banks, brokerages, online magazines). In other cases this was not the case; for example, although each telecommunications provider would have the words "telecommunication" or "communications" in the title of its home page, a closer look revealed that some also provided business-related information. Another problem was how to determine the primary business according to the categorization which was used in the study; for example, we classified as business-information providers those sites whose primary offerings could be understood as business-related data. Yet another problem arose with sites that provided mixed clues about their business. For example, the Angar site, which describes itself as "experimental," contains technical data about foreign and domestic computer equipment, which might have qualified it as an advertiser; however, there is no price data provided (but a hypertext link to "Price List" which starts email for inquiring about prices). Also missing were data on firms and other content that constitutes an ad. We classified Angar as a hardware vendor, because some textual clues suggested that the company was indeed selling the hardware described in its pages.

3. Findings

The Russian business Web exhibits several general characteristics:
This last characteristic is discussed in more detail below.

3.1 The Dominance of Telecommunications Providers and the "Russian Internet"

For what kinds of businesses are Web sites used? As Table 1 demonstrates (see also Figure 1 in the Appendix), the list is comprised of telecommunications companies, software and hardware vendors, information providers, online magazines, system services providers, brokerages, advertisers, banks, blood banks and dating agencies. Of these, telecommunications providers are most common. Most are in the Internet business; a minority provides other telecommunications services (e.g., Rosprint, the joint venture of the Russian PTT and U.S. Sprint, which also has a Web site). All of those in the Internet business maintain some kind of business relations with Relcom Joint Stock Co., which operates the network popularly called the "Russian Internet". Since the Relcom network is important for understanding the development of computer networks and the Internet as well as the trend towards deregulation in Russia, a discussion of the Relcom and its trading partners follows.

Table 1 - Businesses Profiles of Web Sites
Type of BusinessFrequency
Telecommunications Provider14
Business Information Provider12
Computer Software/Hardware Vendor6
Online Magazine2
Systems Services Provider2
Business Services Provider1
Blood Bank1
Note: The number of "Types of Business" is greater than the number of sites visited, because some of the sites were coded with more than one kind of business

In Russia, the Relcom (the name comes from "Reliable Communications") is commonly called the "Russian Internet," but officially it goes by "Demos/Relcom network." The popular name reflects the fact that the Relcom was the forerunner of Internet connectivity, when it linked the former Soviet Union with the global Internet in 1991. Since then, the Relcom has developed into the main TCP/IP network in Russia. The official name of the network denotes that Demos Co. was one of the founders of the Relcom. Demos was established in 1989 as a software and network company with the primary purpose of creating an operating system for mainframes and workstations. ("Demos" is an abbreviation of operating system name: Dialogue Unified Mobile Operating System.) In 1990, Demos was given the task of developing a small internal computer network for the elite Kurchatov Institute of Atomic Energy (KIAE; now "Kurchatovsky Institute") and other scientific organizations in Moscow. KIAE thus became a co-founder of the Relcom network. (Relcom, Demos, 1995)

The software that defined the Relcom in the beginning was the UUCP suite of protocols (Unix to Unix CoPy) which provided slower data transfer than the Internet's TCP/IP suite. The Relcom also possessed an international link--a dial-up UUCP link to an EUnet host in Finland was established in August 1990. This link turned out to be an asset that helped the Relcom overcome its limited role of serving a handful of Moscow-based scientific users. During the attempted coup d'etat in August of 1991, the Relcom operators were very active in informing the world about the events in Moscow, and Russia about the world's reaction to the coup (see Travica & Hogan, 1992). The failure of the coup created an opportunity to expand. In September 1991, the Relcom obtained the Internet country domain .su. Since then it has been evolving along with its foreign counterpart EUnet, which has developed into the largest provider of Internet services in Europe (Internationally, Relcom is recognized as the EUnet/Relcom Corporation).

The current offerings of the Relcom include a set of standard Internet services (telnet, ftp, network news), and the high bandwidth (42 Mbit) services like video-teleconferencing and Web (these services belong to a higher price category). The old UUCP services (email, file transfer, telefax, teletype and telex) are preserved, and comprise a lower price category. In addition, gateways to networks are based on the OSI architecture (e.g., the Infotel and the MMTel networks based on the X.25 protocol) (Relcom, 1995). Organizational evolution accompanied the technological development. The network is currently operated by the Relcom Joint Stock Co. Growth indicators reveal a doubling of the user population on an annual basis -- in Fall of 1995, Relcom served 200,000 users (ibid.), in comparison to 30,000 at the start of 1992 (Travica & Hogan, 1992). The new users are individuals as well as organizations, such as banks, exchanges, industrial enterprises, information agencies and government bodies. The Relcom has thus become not only the largest computer network in Russia, but also in the entire territory of the former USSR.

MARK-ITT Communications Company is an example of a successful company which has close business relations with Relcom Joint Stock Co. It was established in April 1992, with the mission of developing the EUnet/Relcom network services and creating its own information and communication services in the Udmurt Republic in the Russian federation. In 1993, MARK-ITT's clientele was growing at a rate of 5-10% monthly. Growth slowed down after that, while the company continued to increase connectivity and the range of services. For example, in November 1995 it offered the following services: the transnational EUnet/Relcom node in Budapest, links to several cities/regions that resulted from the cooperation with providers of local communications, packet-switched services resulting from the cooperation with the Rospak Joint Stock Venture, and fax services.

It is interesting to note that the MARK-ITT business has been growing in the same way the Relcom's has: connectivity is being extended over a new territory by establishing business cooperation with providers of local communication services. This indeed represents the model according to which the deregulated development of computer networks is unfolding in Russia.

3.2 Information Providers and Other Businesses

Information providers also have a strong presence in the Russian business Web (Table 1). Very few sites, however, reveal by their names that they provide information (such sites use terms like "information system," or "databases,"etc.) We assigned to this category sites that provided business-related information (often in addition to other services). Examples include business news, price lists, data on offerings of various kinds of goods, business-related law, business opportunities, data on the securities market, market indicators, firm addresses and other contact data, and lists of trade exhibitions. Also, almost all of the information-provider sites store hypertext links to other Web sites. For example, the Relcom's central site, called Relis (from: Relcom Information System), provides information on banking, law, market indicators, products, company addresses, and also provides hypertext links to other Web sites.

The advertiser category refers to the sites that are used for advertising a second party's offerings. While the dominance of the telecommunications and information providers is hardly surprising, the relative absence of advertisers is (see Table 1). The number of ads per advertiser site is also small -- between two and five. The ads usually consist of a firm name and address; a firm logo accompanies the text in some. In a few of the more elaborate ads, the hyperlinked pages were comprised of price lists. The use of color and attractive backgrounds is very limited, while menus in the form of image maps were found at only one site.

It is interesting to note that advertising in the Russian Web can sometimes be whimsical. For example, there was a link at several sites pointing to the home page of a brewery in Germany. In the brewery's Web page a user would be offered a deal: include the brewery's URL in your Web page and receive a six-pack of beer. During our investigation, the brewery introduced a new stipulation: a six-pack could be won only by a person who would be the first in his city to include the brewery's URL in his page. This kind of advertising may reflect the country's relative lack of marketing savoir faire (see Discussion section).

The advertiser category excluded situations in which a company advertised its own services or products. These differ considerably from their Western counterparts. For example, the user can learn much about a company's history and projects, but a price list may be difficult to obtain. It is perhaps assumed that an interested user would send electronic mail to the site maintainer, or find some other way of obtaining price information; this apparently differs from the Western advertising philosophy that aims to make it as simple as possible for the customer.

Other kinds of businesses in our sample include some of the largest enterprises of their kind (e.g., Roscredit is the largest private bank in Russia), or industry pioneers (e.g., the blood bank Sanguis). Moreover, some sites demonstrate a mix of business types. For example, the Dux company not only provides access to the Internet, system design services, and software products, but also offers the prospective Web page owners the server space for rent. It is possible that, in the chaotic processes of market creation in Russia, this multiple orientation is rather the matter of opportunities and spontaneity than of clearly defined missions and strategies.

3.3 Language

About one quarter of the sites studied are monolingual -- either Russian or English (see Table 2). Most, however, are bilingual, which translates into the capability of selecting either Russian or English text. The option of accessing the English version of a site is typically available at the top of a home page. This bilingual feature undoubtedly increases the usability of the Russian business-related Web for Western users. A downside is that the bilingual facility may be only partially implemented. At some servers only the entry screen and possibly a few others provided English, while the remainder were exclusively in Russian. Another problem is that the Russian portions are more developed on some servers, and the user can suddenly be confronted with a polite, but not very helpful, excuse which states that the selected pages are in Russian. It also happens that the bilingual text may cease without warning -- a hyperlinked page may slip into Russian, without any warning. Moreover, the English on some pages can be awkward, while some apparently have not even been checked for spelling.

There is also a Mix category in Table 2 that indicates a failure to provide consistently mono- or bi-lingual sites. For example, a user who pays a visit to the site of a major telecommunications provider must often navigate through Russian and English pages that switch without warning.

For the user that chooses Russian, a convenient function of fetching decoding software is almost universally available. By clicking on appropriate labels, the user can start ftp and download the software which displays Russian Cyrillic in the MS-DOS, MS Windows or Unix environments. The user can install the Russian fonts, say, in a Windows environment, and then start them at any time before or during the browsing of the Russian Web. The decoding software automatically converts strings of International Latin characters which are created by encoding the Russian Cyrillic at the source point by appropriate encoding software, and are used for transfer purposes. Since these characters use the extended ASCII code, the use of decoding software at the receiving end does not affect the English set of Latin characters. Consequently, the user can switch from Russian to English pages without leaving the Russian font mode. The most popular encoding-decoding system for MS-Windows is the so-called KOI-8, which works satisfactorily under Netscape in any MS-Windows environment.

It is interesting that at the time of data collection English was the only foreign language found on the Russian Web, especially since both German and English are officially accepted as business languages in Russia. Also, some price lists are expressed in Deutschmarks (the rest are in Russian rubles and U.S. dollars).

Table 2 : Language at Web Sites

3.4 Communication Functions

Two communication dimensions were studied: communication with the server's maintainer and the ability to place orders automatically. Table 3 summarizes the findings.

Table 3 - Communication Functions
Communication with Site Maintainer
Ordering Capability

The data in Table 3 suggest that most of the servers investigated do provide communication channels with the server maintainers (usually the persons in charge of the technical aspects of the sites). This communication function is typically accessible via a clickable' email address which starts email function. (We did not consider mere provision of e-mail or postal address a communication channel.) Furthermore, about 10% of the servers did not provide the communication capability, while for 13% of the servers it was not possible to determine if the capability existed.

The other communication function, automatic ordering, was offered on only two sites (less than 1%). This may have to do with the state of marketing in a country that quite recently began moving toward a market economy.

3.5 Server Responsiveness

We tested server responseveness in terms of response time (the time elapsing between issuing a command for accessing a http server and starting of the server's home page rendering), response time consistency (the magnitude of deviations of response time across successive accesses), and response reliability (the capability to respond to every request for access). Response time was measured in the morning hours of the work day in Russia through four successive measurements. Our intention was to obtain a rough estimate of the distribution of response times, rather then measurement results of high precision. (For example, we did not measure by fractions of a second, nor did we make an effort to account for measurement errors that were likely to occur in our manual procedure, which consisted of issuing the access command, starting and stopping the watch and monitoring changes in the display). We wanted two pieces of information in relation to response time: (a) the distribution of response time categories; and (b) the reliability of the response time. With regard to the former, we calculated an average of four measurements that took place at approximately the same times during two weeks in October 1995. Three categories for classifying servers according to the response time were created (see Tables 4 and 5). The consistency of response time was assessed on the basis of deviation measures--the standard deviation and the range. Specifically, a consistent response time was considered a time that would be up to about four standard deviations distant from the server's mean response time. This translated to a range of around 10 seconds. The results of the measurements of response time are depicted in Table 4. The statistics on the minimum and maximum response time suggest that the servers studied vary noticeably on response time. Another finding shows that around half of the servers demonstrate an average response time of up to 15 seconds; every fourth server responds within the time span of 16-30 seconds, whereas every fifth belongs to the slowest 31-60 seconds category. Furthermore, consistency of response time was exhibited only by a quarter of the sample. Finally, around seven out of ten servers responded each time they were accessed during the four trial-measurements process; others failed to respond one (eight servers) or more times (two servers).

Table 4 - Server Responsiveness
Min. individual Response Time (tr)2secMNTS-
Max. individual tr105secAngar-
Min. average tr5secRoscredit-
Max. average tr50secTelsib-
A Speed (tr 0-15 sec)18 servers-56%
B Speed (tr 16-30 sec)8 servers-25%
C Speed (tr 31-60 sec)6 servers-19%
Consistent tr
(Standard deviation of individual tr <= 4)
8 serversCronyx, AMT, Surnet, Roscredit,
Relcom, Demos, ICE, Garant-Siberia
Response Reliability (Servers responding each time)
Each Time
22 servers-69%

Is there a relationship between the length of response time and consistency? Correlational analysis suggests that such a relationship exists. Specifically, correlating server average response times with standard deviations of the server average response time gave a Pearson r=0.87 (p<0.0001). This suggests that servers which respond more slowly are also likely to exhibit less consistency in response times in successive access trials. The reverse is also true: the more quickly responding servers are more likely to respond within ranges that do not vary significantly from one access trial to another.

3.6 Other Observations

Our general assessments of servers' data content, navigation and aesthetics are discussed below.
There are notable differences between the sites studied in terms of the scope of the data provided. A majority of the sites provided rather sketchy data (e.g., an information provider offers a very short list of firms), while a minority provided more exhaustive data (e.g., a brokerage site provided a wealth of data in different formats -- alphanumeric and graphics).
Navigation is typically easy. Simplicity could explain the ease of navigation; there are not many data, pages, or menu items. Many sites employ a two-tier structure which is comprised of an html file in the home page tier and hierarchical gopher structures in the file tier. The gopher menus are also clickable,' meaning a click on a gopher item activates the FTP which fetches a file to the user machine. This transfer is usually reliable. Some sites do have another tier, that of the NNTP server (Network News Transfer Protocol). The NNTP servers would typically refuse to respond to requests for access, and thus constituted a dead-end.
By comparison with the West, the Russian business Web's aesthetics are modest. A few sites, however, contain pages whose design is of professional quality (e.g., Relis).
There is a general lack of standardization in terms of screen design. Some sites exhibit a personal touch, like one whose maintainer has the signature "hacker".
The rendering of images is usually slow, with the exception of some Relcom sites. Also apparent is the lack of interlaced images.

4. Discussion

Telecommunications in general and computer networking in particular are developing quickly in Russia. This trend is demonstrated by the history of and figures pertaining to the Relcom network and its partner MARK-ITT, discussed above. Still, the Russian telecommunications sector is lagging significantly behind its Western counterpart, and the entrepreneur from the vignette at the beginning of this paper represents an exception rather than rule. For example, telephone density is 164 telephone lines/1,000 persons (CIA Factbook, 1995) -- three times smaller than in Western countries and nearly stagnant in the last five years (Economist, 1996).

Deregulation of computer networks is another interesting aspect that can be discerned from the development of the Relcom. Telecommunications deregulation was predicted in the early 1990s (cf. Travica & Hogan, 1992). The present study, however, provides information for understanding a specific model of deregulation that developed in Russia. Specifically, the Russian Internet developed in a bottom-up fashion: national connectivity increased by the addition of new regional communication providers to the selection of Relcom's trading partners, while the regional connectivity increased through entrepreneurial cooperation of the local providers. Although the contemporary Russia has abandoned a tradition of strict regulation in a number of economic sectors, it appears strange that the telecommunications industry is left to the free play of market forces given the fact that such advances have been made just in a few developed countries (the U.S., and the U.K.). Monitoring further developments in the domain of deregulation will certainly be interesting.

Given the telecommunications boom, it is not strange that the Russian business-related Web is dominated by telecommunications companies -- they have the easiest and the least expensive access to the Web. One characteristic of Web demographics is the concentration of sites in Moscow and St. Petersburg. Several factors could account for this bias, including clustering of expert, business activity, and computer network infrastructure. Another characteristic of the Web is an underdeveloped state of sites, which could be due to a lack of motivation for self-presentation and advertising in the nascent market economy (more discussion is below).

Only four of the 35 sites we studied engage in the business of advertising other firms. This is a small number. In addition, the number of ads per site is small (two to five, typically), and the ads are modest both in their content (e.g., price lists not provided; no automatic ordering) and aesthetics. The Web display is unpleasantly reminiscent of the retail shops' vacant shelves during the Soviet era. These findings suggest that advertising is still not taken seriously as a potential business the Web can support. Moreover, the self-presentation, for which the Web site owners use their sites, suffers from the limitations listed above. It is likely that the state of Web-based advertising and self-presentation reflects a social context in which advertising is weakly understood. There is no history of advertising in Russia, and advertising on television is only just being accepted by Russian audiences (Donaldson, 1995). The German brewery advertisements mentioned earlier can be taken as an example of this general lack of understanding of the very concept of advertising and its economic implications. Given these conditions, along with shortages in hardware-software, the poor quality of advertising and self-presentation on the Russian Web is easy to understand.

Although most of the business-related Web sites in Russia are bilingual, the English sections are sometimes minimalist. From the perspective of the Western user, this can be a barrier. Some sites would also benefit from an improvement in the quality of the English (stylistically and typographically). Furthermore, the arbitrary mixing of Russian and English is a serious weakness of certain sites. Another limitation is the lack of automatic ordering capability. Moreover, a server response time exceeding 16 seconds, which was exhibited in 50% of our sample, may be unacceptable to the Western user. Finally, only a quarter of the servers demonstrated consistent response time, which also can diminish usability of the sites.

5. Summary

The Russian business Web, which we investigated in the Fall 1995, appears to be demonstrating satisfying usability in terms of language used and communication capability. It ranks lower, however, on ordering capability and server response time. Ease of navigation has a trade-off in the amount of information provided and a simplistic design. Aesthetics of the pages appear uninspiring. In spite of the downsides, the Russian business Web signals a significant development of both Russian telecommunications and market economy.


Table 5 - Dimensions Studied
Type of BusinessThe purpose of a site which is indicated by the content of dataTelecommunications Provider, Business Information Provider, Computer Software/Hardware Vendor, Advertiser, Business Services Provider, Bank, Blood Bank, Brokerage, Finance, Matchmaking, Online Magazine, Systems Services Provider
LanguageThe language used on a site.Russian, English, Both, Other, Mix (inconsistent)
Communication CapabilityThe existence of a function which starts email addressed on the site maintainer.Yes, No
Ordering CapabilityThe existence of a function which starts an email-based order.Yes, No
Response TimeThe time which elapses between the pressing of Enter and the beginning of a home page rendering.A (1-15 sec), B (16-30 sec), C (31-60 sec)

Figure 1 - The Sample Studied
Organization Name Kind of Business URL * Offerings
1. AMT Group Russia Software and Hardware Vendor Cisco, Sun, DEC & other products
2. Angar Hardware Vendor Hardware product Information (Sun, DTK- Russian clones, etc.
3. Asoft Ltd. Software Vendor N/A
4. Businf Online Telecommunication Provider, Information Provider EUnet access, legal information
5. Business Chance Online Magazine /koi8/bctitle.htm Typical business information
6. Cronyx co. Software Vendor Unix communication software description
7. Demos Plus WWW Telecommunications Provider Internet access & services
8. Dux Co. Ltd. Telecommunications and Systems Services Provider Internet access, system design, software production, Web hosting
9. ELVIS+ Telecommunications, Systems Services & Information Provider Advertising Internet access, systems integration & consulting
10. F1 Communications Telecommunications Provider Internet Access, Web Hosting
11. Garant Service Information Provider Banking and legal info.
12. Garant-Siberia Information Provider Banking and legal info.
13. Inforis Co. Information Provider, Online Magazine White pages (incl. xUSSR); business news & firm addresses
14. Infocom Telecommunications Provider Internet access, guide to accessing Commerce Net, links
15. Institute for Commercial Engineering Information Provider "Infomarket": various business info
16. Intersvyaz Hardware & Software Vendor, Information Provider, Advertiser Product info., regional Information Provider, business news, ads of local firms
17. MARK-ITT Telecommunications Provider Service Info.; links
18. Nevalink Ltd. Telecommunications Provider Internet access & consulting
19. Palantiri Networks Ltd. Software & Hardware Vendor, Telecommunications Provider Product and telecomm. service info.
20. RASER Software Vendor Software product info.; Advertiser ads; firm descriptions, financial news
21. RD MNTS-Service Co. Business Services Organizing business exhibitions
22. RedLab Hardware Vendor CD-ROM products
23. Relcom Online Telecommunications Provider EUnet/Relcom hub; description of services
24. Relcom-Window to Russia Information Provider Securities market data, links
25. Relis Online Information Provider Banking, legislature, market indicators, various product info, firm addresses, links
26. Rinaco Plus Brokerage /infomarket/rinacoplus Lists of bids and offers
27. Roscredit Bank Bank Description of services
28. Rosprint Telecommunications Provider Description of services
29. Sanguis Blood Bank Description of services
30. Small and Medium Sized Enterprises Busines Support WWW Advertiser, Information Provider Price lists, ads, import legislature, exhibitions list
31. Chance Co. Ltd. Marriage Agency /marriage Personal Ads
32. Sovam Teleport Telecommunications Provider Description of services, links
33. Stack Ltd. Telecommunications Provider Description of services
34. SurNet Advertiser, Information Provider Ads, various information
35. TELSIB Corp. Telecommunications Provider Description of services
* Each URL includes a "http://" prefix.

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