The shapes of atomic orbitals Atomic Orbitals

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These are the atomic orbitals of a hydrogen-like atom:

The two shapes of d orbitals:

There are various ways to choose a set of 7 f-orbitals. This is one possibility:

Similarly, there are several ways to choose a set of 9 g-orbitals. For example:

Atomic orbitals (AOs) combine in bonding and antibonding combinations to form molecular orbitals (MOs). This is often illustrated in MO diagrams, which show the connections between AOs that form MOs. An example of such a diagram for nitrogen (N2) is given here.

The blue and red regions in the AO and MO displays indicate positive and negative signs of the wavefunctions. The electron density for the orbitals is of course positive everywhere. To see an MO diagram for N2 using only densities, click here.