Pembina Valley Provincial Park - Plant Species

This information has been placed here in conjunction with a Manitoba Naturalists Society (now Nature Manitoba) botanical walk August 2, 2003.

The Pembina Valley Provincial Park was officially opened October 5, 2001, as Manitoba's 75th provincial park, and is located approximately 160km south west of Winnipeg Manitoba. There are seven different trails (12.7km total length) that weave through the 1.8 km2 (440 acre) park. You can easily walk just a short loop or spend the day exploring the network of tails. The trails offer moderate to challenging hikes through lush oak and aspen forests that open up to give expansive views of the valley. Almost 300 plant species have been recorded in the park itself from surveys done 1998, 2000 and 2001. The prairie, hills, and protected valleys provide a wide abundance of habitats for plants. In fact Henry Marshall collected over 580 different species in the neighbouring Pembina Hills (Pembina Hills Flora, 1989) suggesting that the diversity of species in the park is likely much higher than those recorded. The Pembina Gorge area of North Dakota has recorded more thann 480 species - one third of the North Dakota flora. Manitoba Conservation has identified 16 rare plant species in the Pembina Valley area including False Indigo (Amorpha fruticosa), a shrub with branching stems and member of the pea family.

The valley, known as the Pembina Gorge in North Dakota, was carved out of the soft shale bedrock by the ancient Pembina River as the ancient river carried meltwater from glacial Lake Souris, in north-central North Dakota and southern Manitoba, to glacial lake Agassiz. The valley cuts through the Pembina plateau and Pembina escarpment, the remnants of which are known as the Pembina Hills. Starting in the northern part of Turtle Mountain and running through southern Manitoba and the edge of North Dakota the river has a total length of roughly 547km (335miles). The valley ranges up to 122 m (400') in depth in the Pembina Gorge (N. Dakota).

The cretaceous age rock (shale) that underlie the glacial deposits in the in this region are exposed where the Pembina River and its tributaries, have cut through the glacial deposits. These Cretaceous rocks were deposited in oceans that covered the area between about 90 million and 80 million years ago. The rocks contain fossils of the animals that lived in those oceans.

To access the park follow highway 3 west of Morden, turn south on provincial road 31. After driving through the Pembina River Valley turn east (left) at provincial road 201 and follow the signs to the park - turn right at the 'T' intersection then left at the next road.

The following species list was generated from several surveys of the park flora. Thanks to Jennifer Shay, MAPB, Conservation MB. Additions were made to the list from a further trip in early July 2003.

Also see:

Vascular Plant Species of Pembina Valley Provinical Park      
Note: Lichen species are found at the bottom      
Species lists compiled from 3 surveys (between 1998 - 2001)      
Latin Name Aug 1998 Sep 2000 Jun 2001
Acer negundo     x
Acer spicatum ?     x
Achillea millefolium x x x
Actaea rubra   x x
Agastache foeniculum x x  
Agoseris glauca x    
Agropyron dasystachyum x    
Agropyron repens x    
Agropyron smithii      
Agropyron sp.   x  
Agropyron trachycaulum x x  
Agrostis scabra ?      
Allium stellatum x    
Alnus crispa     x
Alopecurus sp ?     x
Ambrosia sp. x    
Amelanchier alnifolia x x x
Amorpha canescens   x  
Amorpha fruticosa     x
Amphicarpa bracteata      
Amorpha nana     x
Andropogon gerardi x    
Andropogon scoparius x    
Anemone canadensis x x x
Anemone cylindrica   x x
Anemone multifida     x
Anemone patens var wolfgangiana     x
Anemone quinquefolia     x
Antennaria sp. x x x
Apocynum androsaemifolium x x x
Apocynum cannabinum ?     x
Aquilegia canadensis   x x
Arabis sp.   x  
Aralia nudicaulis   x x
Arctostaphylos uva-ursi     x
Arenaria lateriflora     x
Artemisia absinthium     x
Artemisia biennis   x  
Artemisia campestris   x  
Artemisia frigida     x
Artemisia ludoviciana   x  
Asclepias ovalifolia x   x
Asclepias speciosa x   x
Aster ciliolatus   x x
Aster ericoides x x  
Aster junciformis     x
Aster laevis x   x
Aster praealtus   x  
Aster sp.     x
Astragalus sp.     x
Beckmannia syzigachne   x x
Betula papyrifera   x x
Bidens frondosa   x  
Botrychium virginianum     x
Brassica sp.     x
Bromus ciliatus x    
Bromus inermis x x x
Campanula rotundifolia x   x
Cardamine sp.     x
Carduus nutans   x  
Carex backii     x
Carex peckii   x x
Carex pensylvanica     x
Carex praegracilis   x  
Carex retrorsa   x  
Carex siccata ?     x
Carex sp.     x
Carex sprengelii     x
Celastrus scandens   x x
Chenopodium album   x  
Chenopodium hybridum var. gigantospermum   x  
Chenopodium sp.     x
Cicuta maculata   x x
Cirsium arvense x x x
Cirsium flodmanii   x  
Cirsium muticum     x
Comandra umbellata   x x
Convolvulus sp.     x
Cornus alternifolia ?     x
Cornus canadensis   x  
Cornus stolonifera   x x
Corydalis aurea   x x
Corydalis sempervirens     x
Corylus americana x   x
Corylus cornuta   x x
Crataegus rotundifolia     x
Crataegus sp. x x x
Crepis tectorum   x x
Cynoglossum boreale   x  
Cynoglossum sp.     x
Danthonia spicata   x x
Disporum trachycarpum ?     x
Dracocephalum formosius   x x
Dracocephalum parviflorum     x
Dryopteris ?     x
Echinochloa crusgalli   x  
Elaeagnus commutata     x
Eleocharis palustris ?     x
Eleocharis sp.   x  
Elymus canadensis x    
Elymus virginicus   x  
Epilobium angustifolium     x
Epilobium glandulosum   x  
Equisetum arvense   x  
Equisetum sylvaticum     x
Equisetum sp. x    
Erigeron canadensis   x  
Erigeron glabellus   x  
Erigeron philadelphicus x   x
Erigeron sp.     x
Eupatorium maculatum     x
Festuca sp.     x
Fragaria virginiana   x x
Fraxinus pennsylvanica x   x
Gaillardia aristata x    
Galium boreale x x x
Galium trifidum   x  
Galium triflorum   x x
Gentiana sp.     x
Geranium biknellii   x x
Geum aleppicum   x x
Glyceria grandis   x  
Glyceria sp.     x
Glycyrrhiza lepidota x    
Habenaria viridis     x
Hackelia americana   x x
Halenia deflexa   x  
Helenium autumnale   x  
Helianthus laetiflorus sub subrhomboideus x   x
Helianthus rhomboideus   x  
Helianthus tuberosus   x  
Heliopsis helianthoides   x x
Heracleum sphondylium     x
Heuchera richardsonii   x x
Hieracium canadense   x  
Hieracium scabrisculum   x  
Hieracium sp.     x
Hierochloe odorata     x
Hordeum jubatum   x  
Humulus lupulus   x x
Impatiens capensis     x
Iva xanthifolia   x  
Juncus nodosus   x  
Juniperus communis     x
Koelera cristata     x
Labiatae sp. x    
Lactuca pulchella x    
Lactuca tatarica   x  
Lappula echinata   x x
Lappula sp.     x
Lathyrus ochroleucus   x x
Lathyrus venosus x   x
Lemna minor   x x
Lepidium densiflorum   x  
Linum lewisii     x
Lithospermum canescens x x x
Lonicera dioica   x x
Lychnis alba   x  
Lysimachia ciliata x    
Maianthemum canadense   x x
Medicago lupulina x   x
Medicago sativa x x  
Melilotus alba x    
Melilotus officinalis x    
Mentha arvensis var. villosa x x  
Mirabilis hirsuta     x
Mirabilis nyctaginea     x
Monarda fistulosa x x x
Muhlenbergia cuspidata x    
Muhlenbergia racemosa   x  
Oryzopsis asperifolia x x x
Oryzopsis sp.     x
Osmorhiza longistylis   x x
Oxalis corniculata   x  
Oxalis stricta     x
Panicum capillare   x  
Panicum sp.     x
Parthenocissus inserta   x  
Parthenocissus sp.     x
Pedicularis canadensis ?     x
Penstemon albidus     x
Penstemon gracilis   x x
Petalostemon purpureum x x  
Petasites palmatus     x
Petasites sagittatus     x
Phalaris arudinacea     x
Phleum pratense x x  
Physalis pruinosa ? (may be virginiana)     x
Plantao major x x x
Poa pratensis x x x
Polygala senega     x
Polygonum achoreum     x
Polygonum aviculare   x x
Polygonum convolvulus   x x
Populus balsamifera x x x
Populus deltoides x   x
Populus tremuloides x x x
Potentilla anserina     x
Prunus nigra   x  
Prunus pensylvanica x   x
Prunus sp.     x
Prunus virginiana x x x
Psoralea esculenta   x x
Pyrola asarifolia   x x
Pyrola sp.     x
Quercus macrocarpa x x x
Ranunculus abortivus     x
Ranunculus cymbalaria   x  
Ranunculus sp.     x
Rhamnus alnifolia     x
Rhus radicans x x x
Ribes hirtellum ?     x
Ribes hudsonianum     x
Ribes lacustre   x  
Ribes oxyacanthoides x   x
Rosa acicularis x x x
Rosa arkansana x    
Rosa blanda     x
Rosa woodsii     x
Rubus idaeus x x x
Rubus pubescens   x x
Rudbeckia hirta   x  
Rudbeckia laciniata   x  
Rudbeckia lanceolata     x
Rudbeckia serotina     x
Rumex crispus   x x
Rumex maritimus var. fueginus   x  
Rumex sp. x   x
Salix bebbiana ?     x
Salix discolor     x
Salix exigua   x  
Salix sp. x   x
Sanicula marilandica   x x
Schizachne purpurascens x x x
Scirpus atrovirens   x  
Scirpus cyperinus ?     x
Scirpus lacustris ssp. Validus   x  
Scutellaria lateriflora   x  
Senecio sp.     x
Setaria viridis x    
Shepherdia canadensis   x  
Silene antirrhini   x  
Sisyrinchium montanum     x
Smilacina stellata     x
Smilax herbacea   x x
Solidago canadensis x x  
Solidago rigida x x x
Solidago sp.     x
Sonchus oleraceus     x
Spartina pectinata x x  
Spiraea alba x    
Stellaria longifolia     x
Stipa spartea     x
Stipa viridula     x
Stipa sp.   x  
Symphoricarpos albus     x
Symphoricarpos occidentalis   x x
Tanacetum vulgare   x x
Taraxacum officinale   x x
Thalictrum dasycarpum x x x
Thalictrum venulosum x   x
Thlaspi arvense     x
Tragopogon dubius x   x
Trifolium pratense x    
Trifolium repens x x  
Trifolium sp.     x
Trillium cernuum     x
Typha latifolia   x x
Ulmus americana     x
Urtica dioica   x x
Viburnum edule   x  
Viburnum lentago   x x
Viburnum opulus x   x
Viburnum rafinesquianum   x x
Viburnum trilobum   x  
Vicia americana x x x
Vicia cracca   x x
Vicia sativa   x  
Viola canadensis   x x
Viola pedatifida x   x
Viola pubescens   x  
Viola sororia     x
Viola sp. x   x
Zizia aptera x    
Zizia aurea     x
TOTAL 78 142 191
Cetraria halei W. L. and C. F. Culb.     x
Cladonia cenotea (Ach.) Schaer.     x
Cladonia chlorophaea (Flrke ex Sommerf.) Spreng. sensu lato     x
Cladonia coniocraea (Flrke) Spreng.     x
Cladonia fimbriata (L.) Fr.     x
Cladonia macrophyllodes Nyl.     x
Evernia mesomorpha Nyl.     x
Parmelia fraudans Nyl.     x
Peltigera polydactyla (Neck.) Hoffm.     x
Physcia aipolia (Humb.) Frnrohr.     x
Ramalina pollinaria (Westr.) Ach.     x
Xanthoria polycarpa (Ehrh.) Rieber     x


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