Nazim Cicek, P.Eng., Ph.D. 

 

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Academic Rank: Professor

 

 

Education:

 

1999  Ph.D. University of Cincinnati, USA           Environmental Engineering

1995  M.Sc. University of Cincinnati, USA           Chemical Engineering

1993  B.Sc. Bogazici University, Turkey              Chemical Engineering

 

 

Research Interests:

 

Š           Biological Wastewater Treatment

Š           Bio-plastics production from Waste streams

Š           Cellulosic Biofuel Production

Š           Biological Nutrient Removal

Š           Phosphorus Recovery from Waste Streams

Š               Anaerobic Digestion of Livestock Manure

 

 

Teaching Interests:

 

Š            Impact of Engineering on the Environment

Š               Membrane Processes for Water and Wastewater Treatment       

Š               Transport Phenomena

Š           Environmental Impact Assessment

Š               Bio-resource Ethics

 

Professional Memberships:

 

Š               International Water Association (IWA)

Š               Water Environment Federation (WEF)

Š           American Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers (ASABE)

Š           Canadian Society for Bioengineering (CSBE)

Š               Association of Professional Engineers and Geoscientists of the Province of Manitoba  (APEGM)

 

 

Refereed Journal Publications:

 

1.        Blunt W., Dartiailh C., Sparling R., Gapes D., Levin D.B., Cicek N. “Microaerophilic Environments Improve the Productivity of Medium Chain Length Polyhydroxyalkanoate Biosynthesis from Fatty Acids in Pseudomonas putida LS46” Process Biochemistry, 59, 18-25, August 2017.

2.        Wushke S., Spicer V., Zhang X. L., Fristensky B., Krokhin O. V., Levin D.B., Cicek N., Sparling R. “Understanding aerobic/anaerobic metabolism in Caldibacillus debilis through a comparison with model organisms” Systematic and Applied Microbiology, 40, 245-253, July 2017.

3.        Ward V. C. A., Munch G., Cicek N., Rehmann L. “Direct conversion of the oleaginous yeast Rhodospordium diobovatum to biodiesel using the ionic liquid [C2mim][EtSO4]” ACS Sustainable Chemistry and Engineering, 5, 5562-5570, May 2017.

4.        Gungormusler M., Cicek N., Levin D.B., Azbar N. “Cell Immobilization for Microbial Production Of 1,3-Propanediol” Critical Reviews in Biotechnology, 36(3), 482-494, May 2016.

5.       Sharma P., Fu J., Spicer V., Krokhin O. V., Cicek N., Sparling R., Levin D.B., “Global changes in the proteome of Cupriavidus necator H16 during poly-(3-hydroxybutyrate) synthesis from various biodiesel by-product substrates."  Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology, Published Online 6 (1), 36, March 2016.

6.       Munir R.I., Spicer V., Shamshurin D., Zhang X.L., Taillefer M., Krokhin, O. V., Blunt W., Cicek N., Sparling R., Levin D.B. “Transcriptomic and proteomic analyses of core metabolism in Clostridium termitidis CT1112 during growth on _-cellulose, xylan, cellobiose and xylose” BMC Microbiology, Published Online 16 (1), 91, May 2016.

7.        Ackerman J., Zvomuya F., Cicek N. “Anaerobic storage of commercial pig manures to dissolve phosphorus for struvite precipitation” Applied Engineering in Agriculture, 32(4), 285-292, September 2016.

8.       Katanda Y., Zvomuya F., Flaten D., Cicek N. “Hog Manure-Recovered Struvite as a Phosphorus Fertilizer for Canola and Wheat: Effects on Biomass Yield and Phosphorus Use Efficiencies” Soil Science Society of America Journal, 80(1), 135-146, January 2016.

9.       Fu J., Sharma P., Spicer V., Krokhin O. V., Zhang X.L., Fristensky B., Cicek N., Sparling R., Levin D.B. “Quantitative ‘Omics analyses of medium chain length polyhydroxyalkanaote metabolism in Pseudomonas putida LS46 cultured with waste glycerol and waste fatty acids” PLOS ONE, Published Online, 10(11), November 2015.

10.     Islam R., Panditharatne C., Schellenberg J., Sparling R., Cicek N., Levin D.B. “Potential of thin stillage as a low-cost nutrient source for direct cellulose fermentation by Clostridium thermocellum” AIMS Energy, 3(4), 711-727, November 2015.

11.     Blunt W., Levin D.B., Sparling R., Gapes D., Cicek N. “Evaluating Supersaturation of in-situ Produced Gases During Thermophilic Cellobiose Fermentation with Clostridium thermocellum” Transactions of ASABE, 58(5), 1149-1157 November, 2015.

12.     Wushke S., Levin D.B., Cicek N., Sparling R. “Facultative anaerobe Caldibacillus debilis GB1: Characterization and use in a designed aerotolerant, cellulose-degrading coculture with Clostridium thermocellum” Applied Environmental Microbiology, 81 (16), 5567-5573, June 2015.

13.    Jeke N., Zvomuya F., Cicek N., Ross L., Badiou P. “Biomass, Nutrient and Trace Element Accumulation and Partitioning in Cattail during Wetland Phytoremediation of Municipal Biosolids” Journal of Environmental Quality, 44 (5), 1541-1549, August 2015.

14.     Ackerman J., Jordaan E., Rezania B., Cicek N. “Phosphorus removal from solids separated hog manure by air stripping.” Canadian Biosystems Engineering, 56, 6.13-6.20, January 2015.

15.    Fu J., Sharma U., Sparling R., Cicek N., Levin D.B. “Effects of impurities in biodiesel production-derived glycerol on growth, mcl-PHA synthesis, and expression of heavy metal resistance genes and gene products in Pseudomonas putida LS46” Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology, 99 (13), 5583–5592, July 2015.

16.    Munch G., Sestric R., Sparling R., Levin D.B., Cicek N. “Lipid production in the under-characterized oleaginous yeasts, Rhodosporidium babjevae and Rhodosporidium diobovatum, from biodiesel-derived waste glycerol” Bioresource Technology, 185, 49-55, March 2015.

17.     Islam R., Sparling R., Cicek N., Levin D.B. “Optimization of influential nutrients during direct cellulose fermentation into hydrogen by Clostridium thermocellum” International Journal of Molecular Sciences, 16(2), 3116-3132, January 2015.

18.    Fu J., Sharma U., Sparling R., Cicek N., Levin D.B. “Evaluation of medium-chain length Polyhydroxyalkanoate production by Pseudomonas putida LS46 using biodiesel byproduct streams” Canadian Journal of Microbiology, 60(7): 461-468, July 2014.

19.    Rydzak T., Grigoryan M., Cunningham Z., Krokhin O., Ezzati P., Cicek N, Levin D.B., Wilkins J., Sparling R. “Insights into electron flux through manipulation of fermentation conditions and assessment of protein expression profiles in Clostridium thermocellum” Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 98 (14): 6497-6510, May 2014.

20.     Agbor V.B., Zurzolo F., Blunt W., Dartiailh C., Cicek N., Sparling R., Levin D.B. “Single-Step Fermentation of Hemp Residues for Hydrogen and Ethanol Production” Biomass and Bioenergy, 64, 62-69, May 2014.

21.    Sestric R., Munch G., Cicek N., Sparling R., Levin D.B. “Growth and neutral lipid synthesis by Yarrowia lipolytica on various carbon substrates under nutrient-sufficient and nutrient-limited conditions” Bioresource Technology, 164, 41-46, July 2014.

22.    Blunt W., Hossain E., Gapes D., Sparling R., Levin D.B., Cicek N. “Real-time monitoring of microbial fermentation end products in biofuel production with a titrimetric off-gas analysis"” Biological Engineering Transactions, 6(4) 209-213, May 2014.

23.    Carere C., Rydzak T., Cicek N, Levin D.B., Sparling R. “Role of Transcription and Enzyme Activities in Redistribution of Carbon and Electron Flux in Response to N2 and H2 Sparging of Open-Batch Cultures of Clostridium thermocellum ATCC 27405” Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 98 (6), 2829-2840, March 2014.

24.     Bhadra S., Blunt W., Dynowski C., McDonald M., Thomson D.J., Freund M.S., Cicek N., Bridges G.E. “Embeddable Coupled Coil Sensor for Wireless pH monitoring in a Bioreactor” IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement, 63 (5), 1337-1346, 2014

25.     Yang W., Zhou H., Cicek N. “Treatment of Organic Micropollutants in Water and Wastewater by UV-based Processes: A Literature Review” Critical Reviews in Environmental Science and Technology, 44(13), 1443-1476, May 2014.

26.     Cordeiro, M.R.C., Sri Ranjan R., Ferguson I.J., Cicek N. “Nitrate, phosphorus, and salt export through subsurface drainage from corn fields in the Canadian Prairies” Transactions of the ASABE, 57(1), 43-50, 2014.

27.     Wushke S., Levin D.B., Cicek N., Sparling R. “Characterization of Enriched Aero-tolerant Cellulose Degrading Communities for Biofuels Production Using Differing Selection Pressures and Inoculum Sources” Canadian Journal of Microbiology, 59(10), 679-683, 2013. 

28.    Huang Q., Ackerman J., Cicek N. “Effect of dietary fiber on phosphorus distribution in fresh and stored liquid hog manure” Canadian Journal of Civil Engineering, 40(9), 869-874, 2013.

29.     Ackerman J., Zvomuya F., Cicek N., Flaten D. “Evaluation of Manure-Derived Struvite as a Phosphorus Source for Canola” Canadian Journal of Plant Science, 93(3), 419-424, 2013.

30.     Jordaan E.M., Rezania B., Cicek N. “Investigation of chemical-free nutrient removal and recovery from CO2-rich wastewater” Water Science and Technology, 67(10), 2195-2201, 2013.

31.     Islam R., Ozmihci, S., Cicek N., Sparling, R., Levin D.B. “Enhanced cellulose fermentation and end_product synthesis by Clostridium thermocellum with varied nutrient compositions under carbon-excess conditions” Biomass and Bioenergy, 48, 213-223, 2013.

32.    Carere R.C., Rydzak T., Verbeke, T.J., Cicek N., Levin D.B., Sparling R. “Linking genome content to biofuel production yields: A meta-analysis of major catabolic pathways among selected H2 and ethanol-producing bacteria” BMC Microbiology, 12, 295, 2012.

33.     Sharma P.K., Fu J., Cicek N., Sparling R., Levin D.B. “Kinetics of medium-chain-length polyhydroxyalkanoate production by a novel isolate of Pseudomonas putida LS46” Canadian Journal of Microbiology, 58(8), 982-989, 2012.

34.     Ackerman J., Cicek N., Oleszkiewicz J.A. “Anaerobic fermentation of pig manure to increase phosphorus removal by struvite precipitation” Biological Engineering Transactions, 5(4), 177-189, 2012.

35.     Jaroszynski L.W., Cicek N, Sparling R., Oleszkiewicz J.A., “Impact of free ammonia concentration on anammox rates in a moving bed biofilm reactor” Chemosphere, 88(2), 188-195, 2012.

36.     Yang W., Zhou H., Cicek N. “Removal mechanisms of 17 beta-estradiol and 17 alpha-ethinylestradiol in membrane bioreactors” Water Science and Technology, 66(6), 1263-1269, 2012

37.     Paetkau M., Yang, W., Cicek N. “Ethinylestradiol Removal in a Conventional and a Simultaneous Nitrification-denitrification Membrane Bioreactor” Water Science and Technology, 64(12), 2333-2337, 2011.

38.     Agbor V.B., Blunt, W., Cicek N., Sparling R., Berlin A., Levin D.B. “Processing of Cellulosic feedstocks for ethanol and hydrogen production” Journal of Science and Technology for Forest Products and Processes, 1(3), 54-61, 2011.

39.     Verbeke T. J., Dumonceaux T.J., Wushke S., Cicek N, Levin D.B., Sparling R. “Isolates of Thermoanaerobacter thermohydrosulfuricus from decaying wood compost display genetic and phenotypic microdiversity” FEMS Microbiology Ecology, 78 (3), 473-487, 2011.

40.     Ackerman J., Cicek N. “Phosphorus removal and recovery from hog lagoon supernatant using a gravity-settled batch reactor and increased pH” Biological Engineering Transactions, 4(4): 207-218, 2011.

41.     Paetkau, M., Cicek N. “Comparison of nitrogen removal and sludge characteristics between a conventional and a simultaneous nitrification-denitrification membrane bioreactor” Desalination, 283, 165-168, 2011.

42.    Agbor V.B., Cicek N., Sparling R., Berlin A., Levin D.B. “Biomass Pretreatment: Fundamentals Toward Application” Biotechnology Advances, 29(6), 675-685, 2011.

43.    Rydzak T., Levin D.B., Cicek N, Sparling R. “End-Product Induced Metabolic Shifts in Clostridium thermocellum ATCC 27405” Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology, 92(1), 199-209, 2011.

44.    Huang Q., Zhang Q., Cicek N., Mann D. “Biofilter: a promising tool for mitigating methane emission from manure storage” Journal of Arid Land, 3(1), 61-70, 2011.

45.    Jaroszynski L.W., Cicek N, Oleszkiewicz J.A., Sparling R. “The importance of operating pH on the stability of anammox activity in moving bed biofilm reactors” Bioresource Technology, 102(14), 7051-7056, 2011.

46.     Ramachandran U., Wrana N., Cicek N., Sparling R., Levin,D.B. “Isolation and characterization of a hydrogen and ethanol producing Clostridium sp. strain URNW” Canadian Journal of Microbiology, 57, 236-243, 2011.

47.     Wohlgemut O., Cicek N., Oleszkiewicz J.A., Sparling R. “Co-Digestion of Hog Manure with Glycerol to Boost Biogas and Methane Production” Transactions of the ASABE, 54(2), 723-727, 2011.

48.     Cordeiro, M.R.C., Sri Ranjan R., Cicek N. “Assessment of nutrient build-up and design criteria for feedlots using electromagnetic induction” Environmental Technology, 32(15), 1825-1833, 2011.

49.     Wrana N., Sparling R., Cicek N., Levin D.B. “Hydrogen gas production in a microbial electrolysis cell by electrohydrogenesis” Journal of Cleaner Production, 18, 105-111, 2010.

50.     Yang W., Paetkau M., Cicek N. “Improving the performance of membrane bioreactors by powdered activated carbon dosing with cost considerations” Water Science and Technology, 62 (1), 172-179, 2010

51.     Celmer-Repin, D., Hwang J-H., Cicek N., Oleszkiewicz J.A. “Autotrophic nitrogen-removing biofilms on porous and non-porous membranes” Environmental Technology, 31 (12), 1391-1401, 2010.

52.    Huang Q., Wohlgemut O., Cicek N., France J., Kebreab E. “A mechanistic model for predicting methane emissions from anaerobic manure storage systems” Canadian Journal of Soil Science, 90 (3), 507-516, 2010.

53.     Jordaan E.M., Ackerman J., Cicek N. “Phosphorus removal from anaerobically digested swine wastewater through struvite precipitation” Water Science and Technology, 61 (12), 3228-3234, 2010.

54.     Yang W., Paetkau M., Cicek N. “Effects of Powdered Activated Carbon Dosing on Sludge Characteristics and Estrogens Removal in Membrane Bioreactor” Water Science and Technology, 61 (9), 2193-2198, 2010.

55.     Hwang J-H., Cicek N., Oleszkiewicz J.A. “Achieving biofilm control in a Membrane Biofilm Reactor Removing Total Nitrogen” Water Research, 44(7), 2283-2291, 2010.

56.     Hwang J-H., Cicek N., Oleszkiewicz J.A. “Effect of loading rate and oxygen supply on nitrification in a non-porous membrane biofilm reactor” Water Research, 43 (13), 3301-3307, 2009.

57.     Hwang J-H., Cicek N., Oleszkiewicz J.A. “Inorganic precipitation during autotrophic denitrification in various operating conditions” Environmental Technology, 30 (13), 1475-1485, 2009.

58.     Hwang J-H., Cicek N., Oleszkiewicz J.A. “Membrane biofilm reactors for nitrogen removal: state-of-the-art and research needs” Water Science and Technology, 60 (11), 2739-2747, 2009.

59.     Hwang J-H., Cicek N., Oleszkiewicz J.A. “Long-term operation of membrane biofilm reactors for nitrogen removal with autotrophic bacteria” Water Science and Technology, 60 (9), 2405-2412, 2009.

60.    Levin D.B., Carere, R.C., Cicek N., Sparling, R. “Challenges for Biohydrogen Production via Direct Cellulose Fermentation” International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, 34 (17), 7390-7403, 2009.

61.     Rydzak T., Levin D.B., Cicek N, Sparling R. “Growth Phase Dependant Enzyme Profile of Pyruvate Catabolism and End-Product Formation in Clostridium thermocellum ATCC 27405” Journal of Biotechnology, 140 (3-4), 169-175, 2009.

62.     Magnusson L., Cicek N., Sparling R., Levin D.B. “Continuous hydrogen production during fermentation of a_- cellulose by the thermophillic bacterium Clostridium thermocellum” Biotechnology & Bioengineering, 102 (3), 759-766, 2009.

63.     Islam R., Cicek N., Sparling R., Levin D.B. “Influence of initial cellulose concentration on the carbon flow distribution during batch fermentation by Clostridium thermocellum ATCC 27405” Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology, 82 (1), 141-148, 2009.

64.     Ramachandran U., Wrana N., Cicek N., Sparling R., Levin D.B. “Hydrogen production and end-product synthesis patterns by Clostridium termitidis strain CT1112 in batch fermentation cultures with cellobiose or _-cellulose” International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, 33(23), 7006-7012, 2008.

65.     Magnusson L., Islam R., Sparling R., Levin D.B., Cicek N. “Direct hydrogen production from cellulosic waste materials with a single-step dark fermentation process” International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, 33 (20), 5398-5403, 2008.

66.     Carere R.C., Sparling R., Cicek N., Levin D.B. “Third Generation Biofuels via Direct Cellulose Fermentation” International Journal of Molecular Sciences, 9 (7), 1342-1360, 2008.

67.    Sadri S., Cicek N., VanGulck J. "Aerobic Treatment of Landfill Leachate Using a Submerged Membrane Bioreactor - Prospects for On-site Use” Environmental Technology, 29 (8), 899-907, 2008.

68.     Celmer D., Oleszkiewicz J.A., Cicek N. “Impact of shear force on the biofilm structure and performance of a membrane biofilm reactor for tertiary hydrogen driven denitrification of municipal wastewater” Water Research, 42 (12), 3057-3065, 2008.

69.     Carere R.C., Kalia V., Sparling R., Cicek N., Levin D.B. “Pyruvate catabolism and hydrogen synthesis pathway genes of Clostridium thermocellum ATCC 27405” Indian Journal of Microbiology, 48 (2), 252-266, 2008.

70.     Yigit N.O., Harman I.B., Civelekoglu G., Koseoglu H., Cicek N., Kitis M. “Membrane Fouling in a Pilot-Scale Submerged Membrane Bioreactor Operated under Various Conditions” Desalination, 231 (1-3), 124-132, 2008.

71.     Yang W., Cicek N. “Treatment of Swine Wastewater by Submerged Membrane Bioreactors with Consideration of Estrogenic Activity Removal” Desalination, 231 (1-3), 200-208, 2008.

72.    Cicek N., Londry K., Oleszkiewicz J.A., Lee Y.M., Wong D. "Removal of Selected Natural and Synthetic Estrogenic Compounds in a Canadian Full-Scale Municipal Wastewater Treatment Plant” Water Environment Research, 79 (7), 795-800, 2007.

73.    Zhang Q., Zhou X.J., Cicek N., Tenuta M. "Measurement of Odour and Greenhouse Gas Emissions in Two Swine Farrowing Operations” Canadian Biosystems Engineering, 49, p 6.13-6.20, 2007.

74.     Rezania B., Oleszkiewicz J.A., Cicek N. “Hydrogen-dependent denitrification of water in an anaerobic submerged membrane bioreactor coupled with a novel hydrogen delivery system” Water Research, 41 (5), 1074-1080, 2007.

75.     Levin D.B., Zhu H., Beland M., Cicek N., Holbein B.E. “Potential for hydrogen and methane production from biomass residues in Canada” Bioresource Technology, 98 (3), 654-660, 2007.

76.     Rezania B., Cicek N., Oleszkiewicz J.A. “Quantifying inorganic fouling in a membrane bioreactor treating nitrate-contaminated groundwater using hydrogen as energy source.” Water Science and Technology: Water Supply, 6-3, p 115-121, 2006.

77.     Celmer D., Oleszkiewicz J.A., Cicek N. “Hydrogen limitation – a method for controlling the performance of membrane biofilm reactor for autotrophic denitrification of wastewater.” Water Science and Technology, 54-9, p 165-172, 2006.

78.     Rezania B., Oleszkiewicz J.A., Cicek N. “Hydrogen-driven Denitrification of Wastewater in an Anaerobic Submerged Membrane Bioreactor: Potential for Water Reuse.” Water Science and Technology, 54-11/12, p 207-214, 2006.

79.    Rezania B., Oleszkiewicz J.A., Cicek N. "An approach for the measurement of decay, active fraction of biomass and extracellular polymeric substances in hydrogen-driven denitrification” Environmental Technology, 27-12, p 1335-1341, 2006.

80.    Islam, R., Cicek N., Sparling, R., Levin D.B. “Effect of substrate loading on hydrogen production during anaerobic fermentation by Clostridium thermocellum 27405” Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology, 72-3, p 576-583, 2006.

81.    Mailman M., Stepnuk L., Cicek N., Bodaly R. A. “Strategies to lower methyl mercury concentrations in hydroelectric reservoirs and lakes: a review” Science of the Total Environment, 368-1, p 224-235, 2006.

82.     Levin D.B., Islam, R., Cicek N., Sparling, R. “Hydrogen production by Clostridium thermocellum 27405 from cellulosic biomass substrates” International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, 31-11, p 1493-1503, 2006.

83.     Sparling R., Islam R., Cicek N., Carere C., Levin D.B. “Formate synthesis by Clostridium thermocellum during anaerobic fermentation” Canadian Journal of Microbiology, 52, p 681-688, 2006.

84.    Cicek N., Lambert S., Venema H., Snelgrove K., Bibeau E., Grosshans R. "Nutrient removal and bio-energy production from Netley-Libau Marsh at Lake Winnipeg through annual biomass harvesting” Biomass & Bioenergy, 30/6, p 529-536, 2006.

85.    Yang W., Cicek N., Ilg J. "State-of-the-art of membrane bioreactors: worldwide research and commercial applications in North America” Journal of Membrane Science, 270/1-2, p 201-211, 2006.

86.    Rezania B., Cicek N., Oleszkiewicz J.A. " Kinetics of Hydrogen-Dependent Denitrification Under Varying Environmental Conditions” Biotechnology & Bioengineering, 92-7, p 900-906, 2005.

87.    Frederickson K., Cicek N. "Performance comparison of a pilot-scale membrane bioreactor and a full-scale sequencing batch reactor with sand filtration: treatment of low strength wastewater from a Northern Canadian Aboriginal Community” Water Science & Technology, 51- 6-7, p 483-490, 2005.

88.    Rezania B., Oleszkiewicz J.A., Cicek N., Mo H. "Hydrogen-dependent denitrification in an alternating anoxic-aerobic SBR-Membrane Bioreactor” Water Science & Technology, 51- 6-7, p 403-409, 2005.

89.    Mo H., Oleszkiewicz J.A., Cicek N., Rezania B. "Incorporating Membrane Gas Diffusion into a Membrane Bioreactor for Hydrogenotrophic Denitrification of Groundwater” Water Science & Technology, 51- 6-7, p 357-364, 2005.

90.    Macomber J., Cicek N., Suidan M. T., Jan Davel, Ginestet P., Audic J.M. "Biological kinetic data evaluation of an activated sludge system coupled with an ultrafiltration membrane.” ASCE Journal of Environmental Engineering, 131-4, p 579-586, 2005.

91.    Searcy E., Zhang Q., Cicek N. "The use of a biofilter for reducing off-gas odour from an industrial fermentation process” Environmental Technology, 26-1, p 103-109, 2005.

92.    Cicek N., Zhang Q., Zubriski S., Evans, C. "Fate of selected heavy metals during gasification of municipal biosolids.” Journal of Residual Science and Technology, 1-4, p 223-230, 2004.

93.    Lee Y.M., Oleszkiewicz J.A., Cicek N., Londry K. “Endocrine disrupting compounds (EDC) in municipal wastewater treatment: a need for mass balance” Environmental Technology, 25-6, p 635-646, 2004.

94.    Cicek N. "A review of membrane bioreactors and their potential application in the treatment of agricultural wastewater” Canadian Biosystems Engineering, 45, p 6.37-6.49, 2003.

95.    Cicek N., Suidan M. T., Ginestet P., Audic J.M. "Impact of soluble organic compounds on permeate flux in an aerobic membrane bioreactor.” Environmental Technology, 24-2, 249-255, 2003.

96.    Cicek N., Macomber J., Davel J., Suidan M. T., Audic J.M. "Effect of solid retention time on the performance and biological characteristics of a membrane bioreactor.” Water Science & Technology, 43-11, p 43-50, 2001.

97.    Cicek N., Dionysiou D., Suidan M. T., Ginestet P. and Audic J.M. “Performance deterioration and structural changes of a ceramic membrane bioreactor due to inorganic abrasion.” Journal of Membrane Science, 163-1, p 19-28, 1999.

98.    Cicek N., Franco, J. P., Suidan M. T., and Urbain V. "Effect of phosphorus on the operation and characteristics of a membrane bioreactor." ASCE Journal of Environmental Engineering, 125-8, p 738-746, 1999.

99.    Cicek N., Franco, J. P., Suidan M. T., Urbain V., and Manem J. "Characterization and comparison of a membrane bioreactor and a conventional activated sludge system in the treatment of wastewater containing high molecular weight compounds." Water Environment Research, 71-1, p 64-70, 1999.

100.  Cicek N., Franco, J. P., Suidan M. T., Urbain V., and Manem J. "Using a membrane bioreactor to reclaim wastewater." Journal AWWA, 90-11, p 105-113, 1998.

101.  Cicek N., Winnen H., Suidan M. T., Wrenn B., Urbain V., and Manem J. "Effectiveness of the membrane bioreactor in the biodegradation of high molecular weight Compounds." Water Research, 32-5, p 1553-1563, 1998.

102.   Winnen H., Suidan M. T., Scarpino P. V., Wrenn B., Cicek N., Urbain V., and Manem J. "Effectiveness of the membrane bioreactor in the biodegradation of high molecular weight Compounds." Water Science & Technology, 34-9, p 261-267, 1996.