Horticultural Food Crops PLNT3530

Term I

Instructors Goals Objectives Text
References Course schedule and format Tentative Tours Schedule
Evaluation Important Remarks General Academic Regulations Course outline

   Dr. F. DAAYF
207 Agriculture

   1. To be able to discuss issues related to the production, marketing, and distribution of fresh and processed vegetables and fruits
  2. To understand the principles involved in production of vegetables and fruits with respect to land base, equipment, labour, and management practices
   3. To develop an understanding of issues related to the environment and food safety that need to be considered in the production and utilization of vegetables and fruits


1. Be able to describe the temperature, soil, and water requirements necessary for the economic production of specific vegetable and fruit crops, particularly those grown in temperate regions

2. Be able to discuss the production practices used in commercial production of the major vegetables and fruits

3. Be able to discuss the impact that production practices have on the environment:
- surface and ground water quality
- soil structure and soil quality
- non-target organisms

4. Be able to identify and discuss the major postharvest losses and techniques available to reduce losses after harvest and during storage and marketing


There is no assigned text for this course.
       Course references are included with this outline.
       It is highly recommended that students supplement lecture material with the following references:


1. Annual unload reports fresh fruit and vegetables - Domestic 1994: and Imported and Domestic 1992.  Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada.
2. Potato Market Review. 1992-93. Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada
3. Nonnecke. Vegetable Production. 1989. (SB 321 .N65 1989)*
4. Peirce L.  Vegetable Characteristics, Production and Marketing.  1987. (SB 320.9 P45 1987)*
5. Rubatzky & Yamaguchi.  World Vegetables.  1997. (SB 320.9 R83 1997)*
6. American Vegetable Grower.  (Published monthly).
7. Childers. Modern Fruit Science. 1983.
8. Galletta and Himelrick. Small Fruit Crop Management. 1990. (SB 381 S62 1990)*
9. Westwood. Temperate Zone Pomology. 1988. (SB 355 W43)*
10. Ryugo. Fruit Culture: Its Science and Art. 1988.
11. Kader et al.  Postharvest Technology of Horticultural Crops.  1992.
12. Bienz.  The Why and How of Home Horticulture.  1993.
13. HortScience.
14. HortTechnology
15. Howard et al. Disease and Pests of Vegetable Crops in Canada. 1994
16. Maynard and Hochmuth. Knott’s Handbook for Vegetable Growers. 1997. (SB 321 M392 1997)*
17. Janick. Horticultural Science. 1986.
*on reserve

Course Schedule and format

Course schedule:
One hour meeting per week.
On some weeks, tours may be organized, and in some cases, not be completed until 5:30.

    Meeting format:
The instructor will meet with students to provide introductions to sections of the course or to have informal discussions with students on material covered in course reading assignments.  Some of these periods will be used by the students for industry tours either accompanied by the instructor or on their own..

    Course Format:
The course format can perhaps be referred to as an assisted independent study course. The student has been provided with a number of assigned readings that cover various aspects of fruit and vegetable crops. In addition to these readings additional sources of information should be accessed by the students for more thorough coverage of specific topics. During weekly meetings, the instructors will be available to assist students with the course content and provide overall direction to the course. It is imperative that students set a schedule for themselves so that they do not fall behind in their readings and assignment.

Tentative Tours Schedule

01 TBA   Loveday Mushroom Farm -departure 2:30 from Plant Science Atrium
02 TBA   Peak of the Market
03 TBA   Connery's Vegetable Farms
04 TBA   Old Dutch (Potato processing)

Please note: because of the length of some of the tours, we will have to leave earlier than 2:30 for few of them, in some cases around 1:30pm.  Students with conflicts which cannot be resolved will be excused from attending the tour. 


   01   Review article     10%
   02   Fact sheets: 4 @ 7.5% each     30%
   03   Weekly discussions     10%
   04   Tour reports     20%
   05   Presentation     10%
   06   Final exam -oral-     20%
                 TOTAL   100%

Important Remarks

- Assignments, reports, or exams which are illegible or poorly written may be subject to refusal or deduction of the final grade.  Late assignments will be subject to a 10% deduction of the final grade up to the end of the first week and 25% thereafter for each week the assignment is late.

      General Academic Regulations

Please refer to the University of Manitoba General Calendar for regulations regarding plagiarism and cheating and examination impersonation.

Please note that assignments, reports, or exams which are illegible or poorly written may be subject to refusal or deduction of the final grade.


#   Topic                                                                                     (Required Assigned Readings)

1. Introduction to the vegetable and fruit industry
Nonnecke p. 3-20, Galletta & Himelrick p. 12, Westwood p. 1-19
a. World, Canadian, and local production
b. Nutritional considerations, pesticide requirements,  and food safety

2. Classification    Peirce p. 163-172, Janick p. 621-641
a. Fruits
b. Vegetables

3. Crop improvement and cultivar selection
Rubatzky & Yamaguchi p. 17-27, Galletta & Himelrick (refer to each crop)
a. Origin and evolution
b. Breeding and improvement
c. Biotechnology approaches

4. Climatic requirements Rubatzky&Yamaguchi p.59-73, Rubatzky &Yamaguchi p.81-93,
Galletta & Himelrick p. 20-46, Westwood p. 20-31
a. Effect on growth, development, and quality
b. Modification of the growing environment
- mulches and tunnels

5. Production of vegetable seed and propagation material
Nonnecke p. 32-42, Galletta & Himelrick p. 60-66, Westwood p. 77-93

6. Crop establishment  Nonnecke p.126-130, Westwood p. 108-116
a. Soil Management
b. Fertility
c. Seeding/transplanting

7. Irrigation and drainage   Nonnecke p. 80-89, Galletta & Himelrick p. 48-51
a. Water requirements
b. Irrigation systems and scheduling

8. Pest management  Howard et al. p. 22-30
a. Economic pests (insects and diseases)
b. Control alternatives
- biologicals
- transgenics
- exclusion

9. Harvesting and Storage  Nonnecke p. 146-157,
Galleta & Himelrick p. 504-528,
Kader et al. p. 56-63, Kader et al. p. 69-77
a. Mechanical aids
b. Precooling
c. Storage systems

10. Postharvest Biology and Technology   Maynard and Hochmuth p. 66-77
a. Fruit ripening
b. Quality losses

11. Marketing  Nonnecke p. 159-171, Galleta & Himelrick p. 532-543




To develop factsheets for a number of fruit and vegetable crops which outline the key elements in production of the crops as well as the factors which influence crop quality and economic production.

    The Factsheets:
Students will be required to develop four (4) factsheets (two vegetables and two fruits) which contains the following sections:
1. Genus and species
2. Origin
3. Canadian production statistics
4. Botanical characteristics
5. Quality characteristics
6. Climatic requirements
7. Crop establishment
8. Major pest problems (3 diseases and 3 insects)
9. Physiological disorders (3 non-infectious diseases)
10. Harvest methods
11. Storage requirements
12. Packaging/marketing methods

  This information should be organized as a factsheet with clearly identified sections in a concise, well-written format suitable for a grower.  Some photos/pictures/tables/charts  should be included to aid in emphasizing particular points.

  Each factsheet should be approximately five (5) pages in length, double spaced.  This relatively short document will require that students present the information in a very concise format.

    The Information:
Information can be collected from the library, personal libraries of the instructors, and the internet.

    The Crops:
Students may select two (2) fruits and two (2) vegetables from the following list:
Kiwi fruit             Cauliflower
Grapes                Carrots
Peaches              Garlic
Apples                Celery
Pears                  Tomato
Raspberry           Watermelon
Sweet cherry       Asparagus
Blueberry            Sweet corn

4 factsheets @ 7.5 marks    30% of final grade
The grade will be based on accuracy of the information, organization, and writing style.

Students may submit a completed factsheet for critical review by the instructor which will then be returned to the student before final submission.

    Due date:
All factsheets must be completed and submitted by Friday, November 30, 2001


Each student will be required to submit ONE review article and to make ONE presentation on specific topics related to fruits and vegetables.
These topics will relate to crop production, crop quality, or technology.

    The Articles:
Students will select two (2) topics from the following list and prepare a written report with references for the first topic and a presentation on the second one.
Each paper should be approximately five (5) pages in length in a well-written style.

Effect of temperature on pigmentation in fruits and vegetables
Regulation of ethylene during storage of fruit crops
Propagation of fruit trees by cuttings/budding
Recent advances in pest management of horticultural crops through the use of transgenic cultivars
High density plantings in fruit orchards
Preservation of fruit/vegetable quality during processing
Production of wine
Physiological changes during cold acclimation of plant tissue
Sprout inhibition of vegetable crops
Trickle irrigation in fruit and vegetable production

Paper           10%
Presentation   10%

    Due dates:
Review article:  October 31
Presentation:     TBA