Multicultural Education Reference Package
Group Members: Francine, LaurieAnne, Michelle, Rachel and Sarah
What is Multicultural Education?
- Multiculturalism is defined as “a society that values and promotes the contributions of the diverse cultural heritages and ancestries of all its people. A multicultural society is one that continually evolves and is strengthened by the contribution of its diverse peoples” (University of British Columbia)
Goals of Multicultural Education:
- Students will begin to think critically and analyze their own culture, and the way it fits into society.
- Students begin to realize that there are many different cultures, and gain an understanding about what different cultures represent. As a result of this, students should understand the importance of respecting different cultures and viewpoints, and value diversity.
- Students will gain a desire to want to learn more about different cultures, and understand how much knowledge can be gained through this.
- Students will comprehend the idea that all cultures have the right to equality, and that even though there are differences cultures have similarities.
Resources for Multi-Cultural Education
This internet website, while not useful to children in younger grades, is a good resource about the history of multiculturalism in Canada for a teacher who is beginning to teach this as a unit for the first time.
This internet site is very useful and has numerous interesting lesson plans for incorporating diversity into your middle year’s classrooms. Full Lesson Plans are given at no additional charges.
Here is the overview of how the curriculum includes multiculturalism in k-12 in Manitoba. Obviously this is the most thorough website that you will find in how we should be teaching multi-cultural education here in Manitoba. A direct link to the Multicultural aspect specifically is this: http://www.edu.gov.mb.ca/k12/docs/policy/multic/index.html .
This is intended for high school students to use in their curriculum and study of the Holocaust, but it might be an interesting way to see how studying diversity builds throughout the curriculum. Also the extensive list of resources when you scroll down through this site will blow you away.
While this next resource provides another overview of Canadian multiculturalism, the yellow and blue color scheme makes it difficult to read the information it is trying to present. This site does have numerous links though, to other multi-cultural material. It has a great deal of spelling and grammatical errors. I am thinking this may have been made by a younger student. Maybe it is a student example, and as such, perhaps you could have your older students consider making a website on their multicultural research. This might be a great way to include research, diversity, and ICT into your classroom.
This website has several k-12 Art lesson plans for a unit on Multiculturalism. They look interesting, and while some of them I have commonly seen done before some are interesting and unique, worth checking out. These look great, and there are links to numerous books but those would be at additional charges.
Manitoba Curriculum and Multicultural Education:
- Grade Five:
- First Peoples: students will study the culture of First Peoples and compare and contrast that culture to their own. They will compare cultures based on geography, governance and way of life.
- Early Europeans: students will study the Early Europeans and begin to understand how their culture effected their live in Canada. They will compare British and French culture to determine cause of conflicts.
- Fur Trade: students will study how the Fur Trade changed the way of life for the colonists and the Aboriginals and how this affected their culture.
- From British Colony to Confederation: students will study the cultures present at the time of confederation and how this diversity caused conflict.
- Grade Six:
- Building a Nation: students will study the cultures of those who joined confederation, the conflict over the Chinese who worked on the railroad, the conflict of rights of Aboriginals and the spread of immigrants to the western provinces.
- An Emerging Nation: students will study the world wars and the Great Depression and the shift in cultural values that these brought about.
- Shaping Contemporary Canada: students will discuss the policies put in place regarding bilingualism and multiculturalism.
- Canada Today: students will discuss what it means to be Canadian and therefore what it means to be multicultural. Students will begin to appreciate diversity and democracy.
- Grade Seven:
- World Geography: students will learn where certain cultural groups are located and how these cultures live. They will also learn about less developed cultures and the reasons behind this lesser development.
- Global Quality of Life: students will discuss what the ‘good life’ is and whether or not this changes around the world. Students will learn about democracy and how multiculturalism fits into this governance.
- Ways of Life in Asia, Africa and Australasia: students will compare cultures to find differences and similarities between cultures around the world. Students will appreciate cultural ways of life and demonstrate concern over a loss of an indigenous way of life.
- Human Impact on Europe or the Americas: students will study European and American cultures and will perhaps be able to relate to these cultures through ancestral ties.
- Grade Eight:
- Understanding Societies Past and Present: students will study diverse theories of the origin of human life and grow to appreciate culturally diverse historical artefacts.
- Early Societies of Mesopotamia, Egypt or the Indus Valley: students will learn that cultures of Early Societies are not only different then today’s cultures but those early cultures differed from one another as well. Students will appreciate early art as a form of cultural communication.
- Ancient Societies of Greece and Rome: students will compare and contrast Greek and Roman cultures to each other as well as study how these cultures have shaped today’s culture and government.
- Transition to the Modern World: students will appreciate how history shapes modern culture. Students will study the affect of religion and education on culture.
- Shaping the Modern World: students will appreciate the struggles, art, writing and forms of communication that have shaped modern cultures.
Multicultural Education: an Overview
A key component to social studies is educating students about what it means to be a citizen of their country. As a result, it is important to recognize that when teaching social sciences there are topics that are outside, but still integrated into what one is teaching; multiculturalism being one such topic. Multiculturalism is defined as “a society that values and promotes the contributions of the diverse cultural heritages and ancestries of all its people. A multicultural society is one that continually evolves and is strengthened by the contribution of its diverse peoples” (University of British Columbia). This definition greatly ties into the philosophy and goals of teaching multiculturalism. The philosophy when teaching multiculturalism is that students will embrace diversity in society, and feel pride in their heritage, as well as learn respect for other cultures.
This philosophy serves as the basis for the creation of the goals of incorporating multiculturalism into the curriculum. These goals include getting students to critically think and analyze their own culture, and the way it fits into society. Another goal is getting students to realize that there are many different cultures, and gain an understanding about what different cultures represent. As a result of this, students should understand the importance of respecting different cultures and viewpoints, and value diversity. A third goal in integrating multiculturalism in one’s lessons is that students will gain a desire to want to learn more about different cultures, and understand how much knowledge can be gained through this. A fourth goal is that students will comprehend the idea that all cultures have the right to equality, and that even though there are differences cultures have similarities.
The techniques that will be used are to integrate multiculturalism are getting students to think critically about what the word “culture” means, and to which culture they belong. Students will be encouraged to think about what their culture means to them, and to respect other cultures.
The methods that will be used are to first look at the social studies curriculum throughout the middle years, and gain an understanding of where in the curriculum multiculturalism could be incorporated into what one is teaching. Once an understanding of this has been gained, lessons can be moulded around the desired goals that are hoped to be achieved. For example, in teaching Grade seven students about “Human Impact in Europe or the Americas” using the topic of urbanization, students are expected to: identify common challenges faced by large urban centres which could include cultural diversity and the challenges that presents. Groups of students could each research a different large urban centre, and explore different cultures that are present in that city. After which, they could look at where in the city these groups are live, and what kind of jobs they tend to have, as well, what challenges the groups face through things such as acquiring jobs, receiving education, how they are accepted in the community and if equality is present. These groups could then present their findings to the class through a presentation. Next a class discussion could be generated about whether there were common challenges that students noticed facing large urban centres. As a result, students would be able to realize that urban centres do have a vast variety of cultural diversity, and that these different cultures face various challenges.
The skills that will be gained through teaching students about multiculturalism are that they will be respectful of different cultures, and appreciate the diversity amongst different cultures. As well, another skill that will be gained is getting students to think outside of just their culture, it will expose them to a variety of different cultures and societies, and realize that there are similarities. It will also get them to develop critical thinking skills about their own culture, and what it is they value about their own culture.
- What is Culture? Brainstorm
- Where are you from? Brainstorm ancestral origins.
- Compare class ancestry…Similarities? Differences? How does this affect who we are? What does it mean to be Canadian?
Multicultural Education in Social Studies
Approximately 1 hour
- S-401; to understand what culture is and to use language that is respectful of human diversity.
- S-400; to listen to others and understand their perspectives.
- VC-001; respect rights, opinions and perspectives of others.
- Explore concepts of culture in relation to an individual’s society.
- To demonstrate appreciation and contribution to other cultures.
- To understand that there are similarities among all cultures.
- To demonstrate an understanding that even though an individual has different beliefs, eats different foods, has different laws and rules we are all equals.
- To understand that even though we come from different cultures we are all very similar.
- To gain a sense of identity culture and community.
Description of the lesson/ procedures
Have the word “Culture” written in big letters on the middle of the chalk or white board before the students enter the classroom. This will create confusion, excitement and interest of several students.
Acquire (10-15 minutes)
Once all the students are seated and the classroom is under control tell the students that today’s lesson will begin with a brainstorm on what is culture. Raising their hands each student should give one response. Record all of their thoughts on the board using a brainstorming web. Prior to that ask the students what they think a country of origin is. Raising their hands, they should be able to answer that it is the country in which you were born (this part does not have to be put on the board).
Some words that should come up for culture are beliefs, values, language, history, literature, type of music, pastimes, clothing, traditions, and behaviors, a common food laws, popular sports, a way of life and your identity.
- After the students understand the definition of culture and country of origin get them all to stand quietly at their desk. One at a time get each student to say where they are from (country of origin) and one characteristic of their specific culture. All information should still be recorded on the board. Give an example; I am Ukrainian and in my culture we Ukrainian dance. (10 minutes). If no one states that they are Canadian be sure to go into a brief discussion on what it is to be Canadian.
- After each student has had a chance to speak up ask them to think of cultures we have not named even though it is not theirs and state an interesting characteristic about that culture. With a raise of their hand they could answer while still recording information the board. (10 minutes)
- Afterwards, put the class into groups of 4. Give them time as a group to examine the board and find similarities amongst the different cultures and countries of origin. As the groups take turns presenting their similarities circle them on the board for everyone to see. Try to create and on-going stretched circle for each similarity. (15 minutes)
- In addition to this activity I believe that it would be a great idea to get each student to choose something from a different culture that they would like to learn more about or try.
- Another question to ask is if there is anything amongst a different culture that they have tried.
- In addition and great follow-up activity would be to pair the students up and give them the opportunity to electronically travel to another place where they have the ability to learn about another culture. There should be computer research time during classes, specific questions they should answer as well as an art form of that specific culture they should create. (Since this is only a mini activity I will not go into depth with this part but I think it would be a great activity to do once the students have gained more of an appreciation for other cultures).
In order to understand whether the class has grasped the point of the activity ask the students at the end of the class to tell us what they see when all the similarities are circled. Their response should focus on the fact that as different as we are we are all very similar. (5-10 minutes).
Materials and Resources
- Chalk board at the front of the classroom
- Open classroom with enough space for the students to break of into groups of 4.
Multiculturalism and Grade Five Curriculum
- Origins of First Peoples of North America: Look at the First Peoples early stories. Look at the similarities and differences between the different cultural groups.
- Connections to the Land: Look at how the land that the different First People’s occupied was directly related to their local culture. Look into how geography contributes to the culture of different groups of people.
- Pre-Contact Cultures: Look at the variety of different cultures that were in North America already. Compare their way of life to the different cultures of the children in your class.
- First Peoples Governance: Compare the different forms of leadership of the different First Peoples. Look at how their cultural beliefs affect their leadership styles.
Early Europeans (1600-1763)
- Early European Exploration and Colonization: Investigate the different countries that were exploring North America. Look at their purpose for exploration and their methods of exploring. How do they reflect the cultures of their homeland?
- Nouvelle-France: Look at the cultural differences between Nouvelle-France and the British colonies. Discuss how the cultural differences affect the social structure and organization of the colonies.
- Cultural Interactions in Early Canada: Look at how the different cultures traded, fought, and communicated. Investigate the cultural
- French – British Colonial Rivalry: Investigate the cultural differences that crated conflict between these two countries.
- European Exploration North and West: Discover the impact of the fur trade on European Exploration. Look at how this Exploration affected the Aboriginal cultures in the area.
- Importance of the Land in Fur Trade: Look at how the land was being used for the fur trade. Discuss how the development of fur trading posts created a new culture in the region.
- Life During the Fur Trade Era (1650s – 1850s): Look at how the fur trade changed the way of life for all the different groups involved.
- Metis Nation and Culture in the Fur Trade Era: Look at the cultures involved in creating the Metis Nation. Discover what cultural aspects are present in the Metis culture. Learn about the Metis today. Look at how their culture has evolved over time.
From British Colony to Confederation (1763-1867)
- Early Immigration and the Impact of the Loyalists: Investigate which cultural groups were present in pre-confederate Canada. Look at how these cultures affected the development of Canada.
- Sharing the Land: Discuss how the different cultural groups helped shape the division of land. Find out the impact that each of these groups had on the land.
- Conflict and Reform: Investigate the cultural differences that helped lead to the war of 1812. Look into the reasons for this cultural divide.
- Negotiating Confederation: Discover which cultural groups were involved in confederation. Find out why some groups were involved in the confederation process and others were not.
- Citizenship Then and Now: Discuss the meaning of citizenship with the students. Have the students look at how the European cultures in Canada viewed the Aboriginal people’s at the time of confederation. Look into how this view has changed over time.
Multiculturalism and the Grade Six Curriculum
Building a Nation (1867-1914)
- A New Nation: Discuss the rights of the different cultural groups in Canada. Look at who had rights, who did not and the reasons for this split.
- Manitoba Enters Confederation: Learn about the different groups that pushed for Manitoba to enter Confederation. Look at the different cultural groups that brought Northwest Territories, British Columbia, Prince Edward Island, Yukon, Saskatchewan, Alberta, Newfoundland and Labrador, and Nunavut into Confederation. Discuss the reasons why these groups joined confederation and how their different cultures affected their entry into Canada.
- A Mari Usque Ad Mere [Sea to Sea]: Discuss the treatment of the Chinese labourers. Compare their treatment to how we view and treat the Chinese today. Compare the treatment to the treatment of other cultural groups in Canada at the time.
- Aboriginal Peoples and the Growing Nation: Look at Aboriginal rights. Look at the cultural divide and discuss reasons for the discrepancy between Aboriginal rights and the rights of the majority cultures(s). Look at different Aboriginal leaders and look at their contributions to Aboriginal rights.
- Immigration: Discuss the different cultural groups that were immigrating to Canada in this time period. Try to focus on the different cultural groups that are present in your class. Discuss why these groups were coming to Canada.
- Farming the Land: Find out which cultures were moving out west to the farmland. What is their contribution to the development of Canada. Try to focus on the cultural groups found in the class.
An Emerging Nation (1914-1945)
- World War I: Learn about the different cultural groups that were involved in the start of the War. Discuss reasons for Canada’s involvement in the war. Look at which cultural groups in Canada participated in the war and how the different groups were treated during the war.
- Social Change: Discuss the development of human rights for many groups that did not previously enjoy equal rights. Look at the process of achieving equal rights.
- Depression: Discuss how the different cultural groups were affected by the depression. Investigate if certain groups were affected more then others. If there is a difference, why is this difference present?
- World War II: Learn about the different cultural groups that were involved in the start of the War. Discuss reasons for Canada’s involvement in the war. Look at which cultural groups in Canada participated in the war and how the different groups were treated during the war.
Shaping Contemporary Canada (1945-Present)
- Overview of Contemporary Canada: Look at the cultural backgrounds of the different Prime Ministers. Discuss reasons why some cultural groups are not involved in the government.
- A Changing and Diverse Population: Discuss the reasons for the bilingual and multicultural policies in Canada. What cultural groups were involved in the process of creating the multicultural policies? Discuss how Aboriginal rights were evolving. Look at the difference in rights compared to society today.
- A Modern Industrialized Nation: Look at how industrialization affected the different cultural groups in Canada. Focus on the groups that are present in the classroom.
- Canada on the World Stage: Discuss the cultural reasons for the different conflicts since 1945. Look at if/how these conflicts have effected cultural views in Canada. Discover Canada’s roll in the United Nations and other cross cultural organizations. Look at how these organizations affect our views of the different cultures found in Canada.
Canada Today: Democracy, Diversity and the Influence of the Past
- Expression of Canadian Identity: Look at the different cultural groups that make up Canada. Discuss with your class what it means to be Canadian. Look at the transmission of cultural identity through the arts.
- Government in Canada: Look at the different levels of government and discuss how each level encourages Canada’s multicultural ideals.
- A Community of Communities: Discuss how the Aboriginal and Francophone cultures use different organizations to maintain certain aspects of their culture.
- Creating a Just Society: Discover some of the inequalities in Canadian society. Discuss the reasons for these inequalities. Look at the cultural groups that are most affected by these inequalities. Discuss ways that we can minimize the inequalities as a class.
- Canadian Democracy in the World Context: Learn about the different cultures that contributed to the Canadian Democratic system. Look at how these cultures contributed to our way of government and how it makes the Canadian system unique.
Multiculturalism and Grade Seven Social Studies Curriculum
- Mapping the globe: students will begin to understand where certain cultural groups are located globally.
- The Global Natural Environment: appreciation of diversity of global natural environment.
- Global Population Trends: student will learn where certain groups live, how they interact with their surroundings and they will identify less developed nations and explain why that nation is less developed.
Global Quality of Life
- What is the Good Life? Students will identify diverse cultural and social perspectives regarding quality of life.
- Universal Human Rights: respect the rights and dignity of all people including those with a different cultural background.
- Democratic citizenship and Quality of Life: students will learn about Canadian democracy and how diverse culture fit into this setting.
- Power, Wealth and Justice: demonstrate concern for people who are affected by discrimination, injustice or abuse of power. (These people are quite possibly members of visually cultural minorities).
- Global Cooperation: students will study how diverse cultural groups throughout the world work together to solve problems.
Ways of Life in Asia, Africa, or Australasia
- Elements of Societies: students will compare ways of life and find commonalities between different cultures.
- Natural Environment: Students will learn about the Asian, African or Australasian physical worlds and may make connections to cultural groups in Canada.
- Cultural Influences and Expressions: appreciate the importance of cultural diversity and demonstrate concern for the loss of indigenous ways of life.
- Historical Influences: study how history has shaped Asian, African or Australasian culture.
- Economy and Well-Being: understand how economics shapes cultures outside Canada.
Human Impact in Europe or the Americas
- Geography: learn where Europe and the Americas (perhaps these cultures are represented by students in the class).
- Environmental Impact: describe different approaches to the environment as outlined by different cultures.
- Urbanization: identify common challenges faced by large urban centres which could include cultural diversity and the challenges that presents.
- Historical Influences: see how history has shaped European and American life.
- Living in the Global Village: focus on environment.
Multiculturalism and the Grade Eight Curriculum
Understanding Societies Past and Present
- What is a World View? Students will describe how world views are formed including cross-cultural interactions.
- Origins of Human Societies: study hunter/gatherer vs. agrarian societies and appreciate diverse theories the origin of human life.
- Societies and Civilizations: compare and contrast different societies.
- Knowing the Past: identify historical artefacts and appreciate diversity.
Early Societies of Mesopotamia, Egypt or the Indus Valley
- Overview of Early Civilizations: understand history of culturally diverse countries
- Interactions with the Natural Environment: learn where these places are and how those people interacted with their surroundings.
- Living in an Early Society: students will learn that culture is not only different today but that there is more cultural diversity in early societies.
- Communication and Art in Early Society: describe how art is significant to early societies and how this is carried into our culture…eg: writing.
Ancient Societies of Greece and Rome
- Overview of Antiquity: respect other ways of life and beliefs
- Culture of Ancient Greece: learn about social organization of ancient Greece and appreciate different forms of history including myths.
- Democracy in Ancient Greece: compare and contrast ancient democracy with modern democracy and appreciate the roots of democracy.
- Roman Empire: describe the growth of Rome including wars (cultural diversity in Rome that led to war).
- Legacy of Ancient Greece and Rome: understand how today’s world has been affected by the ancient world and appreciate how culture is shaped through history.
Transition to the Modern World
- Overview of the Middle Ages: appreciate world history’s role in shaping modern cultures.
- Life in Medieval Europe: study the Vikings, Catholic Church and education and how this effected cultural development.
- Rise of Islam and the Ottoman Empire: describe the significance of cultural diversity in regards to Islam and world religions.
- China and the Mongol Empire: appreciate the contributions of all societies to the modern world.
- Legacy of the Middle Ages: appreciate diversity including art, myths, etc.
Shaping the Modern World
- World Overview/Global Exploration: appreciate the struggles of past worlds in shaping the modern world.
- Renaissance and Reformation: appreciate art, architecture, ideas, literature and science of other cultures.
- Industrial Revolution: appreciate how past societies have shaped today’s industry.