Corpus of English contrastive focus reduplications

The following is a corpus of examples of the construction discussed in the paper "Contrastive focus reduplication in English (the SALAD-salad paper)", by Jila Ghomeshi, Ray Jackendoff, Nicole Rosen, and Kevin Russell, published in Natural Language and Linguistic Theory, 2003. (Though it's grown since then.)

The examples are in alphabetical order of the reduplicated string. At the end of this page are indexes sorting the examples into various categories (part of speech, source, etc.).

Last updated: May 30, 2014.

Examples so far: 334

The examples


By part of speech

noun: Adam, Air-Canada, Amherst, artist, Auckland, bacon, bag, bank, beach, Beacon-Street, bitches, boat, bone, boyfriend, brother, businessman, car, celebrity, change, Chicago, Christian, class, cliché, coffee, couple, cow, cred, crime, crime, Dad, date, date, date, date, date, date, date, dinner, dive, doctor, dog, doll, door, drink, drink, drink, economist, egg, end, escort, fans, feelings, fight, fireplace, flute, food, friend, friend, friend, friends, friends, Garth, girl, girl, glove, God, God, green-tea, guitar, gun, gun, guy, guys, guys, hat, highway, hint, history, hive, home, home, home, home, house, job, job, kid, kids, kilt, kiss, kong-chi, language, leak, letter, letter, logic, loser, love, madness, Madonna, Marcus, Mark, marriage, money, mother, mother, movie, movie, Murray, novel, pain, paper, party, party, party, party, Penny Arcade, people, pin, play, poker, prison, problem, problem, prof, relationship, relationships, Roz, rush, salad, shock, slave, Steve, stuff, temple, thing, tonight's, top, Tre, truth, truth, tub, van, war, wife, Woody, work, work, work, ???,

noun phrase: a-car, the-one,

verb: be, bowling, cried, decided, die, dying, enjoy, go, going, handle, happened, help, hustle, know, leave, leave, leave, leaving, leaving, leaving, like, like, like, like, like, like, like, listen, lose, move, promise, rape, rob, robbed, seeing, split, steal, strip, surf, talk, talk, thinking,

verb phrase: been-with, broke-it-off, considered-it, drive-me-home, getting her back, go somewhere, hates-me, hurt-me, indulge-me, kiss-her, kiss-her, know-her, know-him, know-them, know-you, left-her, like you, like-'em, like-her, like-her, like-him, like-you, like-you, love-her, see-you, take-him-out, talk-to-him, tell-me-about-it, wake-up, ???,

adjective: aggressive, aggressive, alone, bad, bad, better, clear, dead, dead, dead, dead, dead, dead, done, evil, familiar, favorite, final, free, French, French, funny, funny, gay, geeky, gone, good, hardest, high, hot, Indian, instant, intense, interested, invisible, jealous, late, late, late, long, married, medium, nervous, next, nuts, okay, older, orange, personal, red, regular, retarded, rich, rich, serious, sick, smart, sorry, special, surprising, ugly, white, wrong,

adverb: a-lot, a-lot, again, anywhere, back, here, here, home, now, out, out, out-there, over, over, really, there, together, together, together, together, together, together, together, tonight,

adverb/preposition: out, up, up, up,

pronoun: it, me, me, me, nothing, you, you, you, you, you,

proper name: Adam, Air-Canada, Amherst, Auckland, Beacon-Street, Chicago, Dad, Garth, God, God, Madonna, Marcus, Mark, Murray, Penny Arcade, Roz, Steve, Tre, Woody,

sentence: I-hate-you,

By medium

live: Air-Canada, all-done, Amherst, Auckland, bank, Beacon-Street, bowling, broke-it-off, businessman, cake, change, Christian, class, couple, deaf, drink, drink, final, fireplace, food, French, gay, glove, green-tea, hat, here, hot, job, know-him, leaving, letter, long, Marcus, money, mother, nervous, older, out, paper, pin, prof, really, regular, relationship, salad, sick, special, surf, talk-to-him, tonight's, up, up, van, wife, work,

written: a-lot, bad, bad, car, cow, date, dog, economist, end, free, friends, go somewhere, guy, highway, home, Indian, indulge-me, madness, me, movie, Penny Arcade, rich, self, take-him-out, talk, thing, you, ???,

radio: artist, bone, cred, dead, fans, flute, guys, history, kids, novel, orange, relationships, surprising, temple, there,

movie: a-car (Foreign Exchange) aggressive (I Heart Huckabees) anywhere (Away We Go) back (10 Items or Less) bacon (Furry Vengeance) bag (It's a Disaster) bitches (Next Day Air) Chicago (The Whole Nine Yards) clear (Jumping the Broom) dead (Death at a Funeral) dead (Zombieland) dead (Nadine) decided (The New Twenty) die (Dickie Roberts, Former Child Star) dinner (Seven Girlfriends) drink (Duct Tape Forever) egg (Julie and Julia) familiar (Dick) French (The Five Senses) friend (Snow Cake) Garth (I Heart Huckabees) geeky (Virtual Sexuality) getting her back (Lesbian Vampire Killers) girl (Euro-trip) girl (Boys Don't Cry) go (Assassination of a High School President) gone (The Darkest Hour) gun (The Green Hornet) guy (Six Days, Seven Nights) hardest (Enough) here (Eat, Pray, Love (movie)) hustle (Valentine's Day) I-hate-you (Princess Protection (2009)) invisible (Love Don't Cost a Thing) it (My Sister's Keeper) kid (When a Man Loves a Woman) kiss (Just a Little Harmless Sex) kiss-her (The Hot Chick) know-them (I Really Hate My Job) kong-chi (The Sixth Man) letter (All I Want) like (The Green Hornet) like (The Wackness (2008)) like-her (Freaky Friday (2003)) like-you (Cloudy with a Chance of Meatballs) lose (Love Liza) loser (The Wackness (2008)) Madonna (Shooting Fish) Mark (Heights) marriage (Away We Go) movie (The Kids are All Right) next (Chillicothe) now (Imagine that) out (Silver Linings Playbook) rape (Finding Amanda) red (13 Going on 30) retarded (Pumpkin) robbed (10 Items or Less) shock (It's a Disaster) sorry (Shooting Fish) split (Scott Pilgrim vs. the World) strip (American Pie) the-one (A Bride for Christmas) together (Twilight) Tre (Kick Ass) tub (Away We Go) you (Zombieland) you (Chances Are) you (Virtual Sexuality) ??? (Fired Up!)

tv: a-lot (Wonderfalls) Adam (Girls) after that (All my children) again (Less than Kind) aggressive (Felicity) all-the-way (Being Erica) alone (Significant Others) beach (Port Charles) been-with (What I Like about You) better (Gideon's Crossing) boat (Dawson's Creek) boyfriend (Just Shoot Me) brother (Off the map) cliché (18 to Life) coffee (Hyperion Bay) considered-it (Dawson's Creek) cried (Home Improvement) crime (Outsourced) crime (Port Charles) date (Dead Like Me) date (Frasier) date (Dawson's Creek) date (As the World Turns) date (Days of Our Lives) date (Days of Our Lives) dead (Dead Like Me) dead (Red Dwarf) dive (Joan of Arcadia) doctor (The Big Bang Theory) doll (Pushing Daisies) done (The Simpsons) door (Grace Under Fire) drive-me-home (Episodes) dying (Joan of Arcadia) enjoy (Everybody Loves Raymond) escort (Neon Rider) evil (Angel) favorite (As the World Turns) feelings (Life Unexpected) fight (Seinfeld) friend (The Big Bang Theory) friend (Felicity) friends (All My Children) funny (Snakes and Ladders) funny (Gilmore Girls) God (Raising Hope) God (Stargate SG-1) going (Everwood) good (As the World Turns) guitar (That 70s show) gun (Chuck) guys (Guiding Light) handle (Buffy the Vampire Slayer) happened (Red Dwarf) hates-me (Breakout Kings) help (Firefly) high (Bunheads) hint (Arrested Development) hive (Port Charles) home (Robson Arms) home (Gilmore Girls) home (Guiding Light) home (Port Charles) house (Veronica Mars) hurt-me (Lost Girl) instant (Home Improvement) intense (2 Broke Girls) interested (Ally McBeal) jealous (Caroline in the City) job (Treme) kilt (Family Biz) kiss-her (Pushing Daisies) know (Gilmore Girls) know-her (Hemlock Grove) know-you (The Hour) language (The Dollhouse) late (Raising Hope) late (The Family Guy) late (Will and Grace) leak (Dawson's Creek) leave (Breakout Kings) leave (Dan for Mayor) leave (Dan for Mayor) leaving (News Radio) leaving (All My Children) left-her (Buffy the Vampire Slayer) like (Suburgatory) like (Life with Derek) like (Life with Derek) like (Dawson's Creek) like (Seinfeld) like (Daria) like you (InSecurity) like-'em (Friends) like-her (Dawson's Creek) like-him (Seinfeld) like-you (Dawson's Creek) logic (Wonder Years) love (Forever Knight) love-her (Arrested Development) married (Will and Grace) me (Stargate Atlantis) me (Frasier) medium (Frasier) mother (The Facts of Life) move (Days of Our Lives) Murray (Made in Canada) nothing (Little Mosque on the Prairie) nuts (Caroline in the City) okay (Instant Star) out (Run's House) out-there (Veep) over (Jess) over (Daria) pain (Sex and the City) party (Lost Girl) party (Vampire Diaries) party (Felicity) party (The Bold and the Beautiful) people (Home Improvement) personal (My Wife and Kids) play () poker (Dawson's Creek) prison (The Tonight Show, May 4, 2000) problem (InSecurity) problem (Joan of Arcadia) promise (Roswell) rich (Murder She Wrote) rob (Happy Endings) Roz (Frasier) rush (Tim Horton's commercial) see-you (Popular) seeing (Buffy the Vampire Slayer) serious (Felicity) slave (Tripping the Rift) smart (Daria) steal (Little Mosque on the Prairie) Steve (Shameless (US)) stuff (Gilmore Girls) talk (Wonderfalls) tell-me-about-it (The Goldbergs) thinking (Pushing Daisies) together (Felicity) together (Wonder Years) together (Angel) together (As the World Turns) together (Days of Our Lives) together (One Life to Live) tonight (Greek) top (Dawson's Creek) truth (Dawson's Creek) truth (As the World Turns) ugly (The Simpsons) up (Once and Again) wake-up (Once Upon A Time) war (M*A*S*H) white (The Critic) Woody (Frasier) work (Charmed) work (Guiding Light) wrong (Charmed) you (Buffy the Vampire Slayer)

Other stuff

suffix copied: aggressive, artist, bitches, bowling, cried, decided, dying, fans, feelings, friends, friends, going, guys, guys, happened, hardest, hates-me, Indian, kids, leaving, leaving, leaving, listen, loser, madness, married, nuts, older, relationships, retarded, robbed, seeing, surprising, thinking, tonight's, ???,

suffix not copied: bone, car, couple, die, friend, girl, glove, gun, gun, guy, hive, kid, like, pain, problem, rape, slave, surf, talk, talk, thing, van,

compound: Air-Canada, Beacon-Street, boyfriend, businessman, cake, deaf, fireplace, God, green-tea, highway, letter, self, work,

inflected: bitches, bone, car, couple, cried, decided, die, dying, fans, feelings, friend, friends, friends, girl, glove, going, gun, gun, guy, guys, guys, happened, hardest, hates-me, hive, kid, kids, leaving, leaving, like, listen, older, pain, problem, rape, relationships, robbed, seeing, talk, talk, thing, thinking, tonight's, van, ???,

derivation: aggressive, artist, done, economist, geeky, Indian, interested, loser, married, nuts, relationship, relationships, retarded, slave, surprising,

NLLT example number: 1a, 1b, 1c, 1d, 1e, 3a, 3b, 3c, 3d, 3e, 3f, 4a, 4b, 4c, 5a, 8, 9b, 9c, 10, 11b, 12, 13, 16, 17, 18a, 18b, 26, 27b, 31a, 31b, 31c, 31d, 31e, 31f, 31g, 31h, 32a, 32b, 32c, 32d, 32e, 32f, 33a, 33b, 36a, 36b, 36c, 36d, 36e, 36f, 37, 37c, 38a, 38b, 38d, 38e, 40a, 40b, 41a, 41b, 41c, 41d, 42b, 43b, 63b, 66a, 66b, 66c, 84a, 84b, 84c, 84d,