Corpus of English contrastive focus reduplications

The following is a corpus of examples of the construction discussed in the paper "Contrastive focus reduplication in English (the SALAD-salad paper)", by Jila Ghomeshi, Ray Jackendoff, Nicole Rosen, and Kevin Russell, published in Natural Language and Linguistic Theory, 2003. (Though it's grown since then.)

The examples are in alphabetical order of the reduplicated string. At the end of this page are indexes sorting the examples into various categories (part of speech, source, etc.).

Examples so far: 237

The examples


By part of speech

noun: Air-Canada, Amherst, artist, Auckland, bank, beach, Beacon-Street, boat, bone, boyfriend, businessman, car, celebrity, change, Chicago, Christian, class, coffee, couple, cow, cred, crime, date, date, date, date, date, date, date, dinner, dive, doctor, dog, door, drink, drink, drink, economist, end, escort, fans, fight, fireplace, flute, food, friend, friends, friends, Garth, girl, girl, glove, green-tea, guy, Guys, guys, hat, highway, hint, history, hive, home, home, home, home, house, job, kid, kids, kiss, kong-chi, leak, letter, letter, logic, love, Madonna, Marcus, Mark, money, mother, mother, movie, Murray, pain, paper, party, party, people, pin, poker, prison, problem, prof, relationship, relationships, Roz, rush, salad, slave, stuff, temple, thing, tonight's, top, truth, truth, van, war, wife, Woody, work, work, work, ???,

noun phrase: a-car,

verb: be, bowling, cried, die, dying, enjoy, going, handle, happened, help, leaving, leaving, leaving, like, like, listen, lose, move, promise, rape, seeing, strip, surf, talk, talk,

verb phrase: broke-it-off, considered-it, go somewhere, indulge-me, kiss-her, know-him, know-them, know-you, left-her, like-'em, like-her, like-her, like-him, like-you, love-her, see-you, talk-to-him,

adjective: aggressive, aggressive, alone, bad, bad, better, dead, dead, dead, dead, done, evil, familiar, favorite, final, French, French, Funny, funny, gay, geeky, good, hardest, hot, instant, interested, invisible, jealous, late, late, long, married, medium, nervous, next, nuts, older, regular, retarded, rich, rich, serious, sick, smart, sorry, special, surprising, ugly, white, wrong,

adverb: a-lot, a-lot, here, over, really, there, together, together, together, together, together, together,

adverb/preposition: out, up, up, up,

pronoun: me, me, Nothing, you, you, you,

proper name: Air-Canada, Amherst, Auckland, Beacon-Street, Chicago, Garth, Madonna, Marcus, Mark, Murray, Roz, Woody,

By medium

live: Air-Canada, all-done, Amherst, Auckland, bank, Beacon-Street, bowling, broke-it-off, businessman, cake, change, Christian, class, couple, deaf, drink, drink, final, fireplace, food, French, gay, glove, green-tea, hat, here, hot, job, know-him, leaving, letter, long, Marcus, money, mother, nervous, older, out, paper, pin, prof, really, regular, relationship, salad, sick, special, surf, talk-to-him, tonight's, up, up, van, wife, work,

written: a-lot, bad, bad, car, cow, date, dog, economist, end, friends, go somewhere, guy, highway, home, indulge-me, me, movie, rich, self, talk, thing, ???,

radio: artist, bone, cred, dead, fans, flute, Guys, history, kids, relationships, surprising, temple, there,

movie: a-car (Foreign Exchange) aggressive (I Heart Huckabees) Chicago (The Whole Nine Yards) dead (Nadine) die (Dickie Roberts, Former Child Star) dinner (Seven Girlfriends) drink (Duct Tape Forever) familiar (Dick) French (The Five Senses) Garth (I Heart Huckabees) geeky (Virtual Sexuality) girl (Euro-trip) girl (Boys Don't Cry) guy (Six Days, Seven Nights) hardest (Enough) invisible (Love Don't Cost a Thing) kid (When a Man Loves a Woman) kiss (Just a Little Harmless Sex) kiss-her (The Hot Chick) know-them (I Really Hate My Job) kong-chi (The Sixth Man) letter (All I Want) like-her (Freaky Friday (2003)) lose (Love Liza) Madonna (Shooting Fish) Mark (Heights) next (Chillicothe) rape (Finding Amanda) retarded (Pumpkin) sorry (Shooting Fish) strip (American Pie) you (Chances Are) you (Virtual Sexuality)

tv: a-lot (Wonderfalls) aggressive (Felicity) alone (Significant Others) beach (Port Charles) better (Gideon's Crossing) boat (Dawson's Creek) boyfriend (Just Shoot Me) coffee (Hyperion Bay) considered-it (Dawson's Creek) cried (Home Improvement) crime (Port Charles) date (Dead Like Me) date (Frasier) date (Dawson's Creek) date (As the World Turns) date (Days of Our Lives) date (Days of Our Lives) dead (Dead Like Me) dead (Red Dwarf) dive (Joan of Arcadia) doctor (The Big Bang Theory) done (The Simpsons) door (Grace Under Fire) dying (Joan of Arcadia) enjoy (Everybody Loves Raymond) escort (Neon Rider) evil (Angel) favorite (As the World Turns) fight (Seinfeld) friend (Felicity) friends (All My Children) Funny (Snakes and Ladders) funny (Gilmore Girls) going (Everwood) good (As the World Turns) guys (Guiding Light) handle (Buffy the Vampire Slayer) happened (Red Dwarf) help (Firefly) hint (Arrested Development) hive (Port Charles) home (Gilmore Girls) home (Guiding Light) home (Port Charles) house (Veronica Mars) instant (Home Improvement) interested (Ally McBeal) jealous (Caroline in the City) know-you (The Hour) late (The Family Guy) late (Will and Grace) leak (Dawson's Creek) leaving (News Radio) leaving (All My Children) left-her (Buffy the Vampire Slayer) like (Dawson's Creek) like (Seinfeld) like (Daria) like-'em (Friends) like-her (Dawson's Creek) like-him (Seinfeld) like-you (Dawson's Creek) logic (Wonder Years) love (Forever Knight) love-her (Arrested Development) married (Will and Grace) me (Frasier) medium (Frasier) mother (The Facts of Life) move (Days of Our Lives) Murray (Made in Canada) Nothing (Little Mosque on the Prairie) nuts (Caroline in the City) over (Daria) pain (Sex and the City) party (Felicity) party (The Bold and the Beautiful) people (Home Improvement) poker (Dawson's Creek) prison (The Tonight Show, May 4, 2000) problem (Joan of Arcadia) promise (Roswell) rich (Murder She Wrote) Roz (Frasier) rush (Tim Horton's commercial) see-you (Popular) seeing (Buffy the Vampire Slayer) serious (Felicity) slave (Tripping the Rift) smart (Daria) stuff (Gilmore Girls) talk (Wonderfalls) together (Felicity) together (Wonder Years) together (Angel) together (As the World Turns) together (Days of Our Lives) together (One Life to Live) top (Dawson's Creek) truth (Dawson's Creek) truth (As the World Turns) ugly (The Simpsons) up (Once and Again) war (M*A*S*H) white (The Critic) Woody (Frasier) work (Charmed) work (Guiding Light) wrong (Charmed) you (Buffy the Vampire Slayer)

Other stuff

suffix copied: aggressive, artist, bowling, cried, dying, fans, friends, friends, going, Guys, guys, happened, hardest, kids, leaving, leaving, leaving, listen, married, nuts, older, relationships, retarded, seeing, surprising, tonight's,

suffix not copied: bone, car, couple, die, friend, girl, glove, guy, hive, kid, pain, problem, rape, slave, surf, talk, talk, thing, van,

compound: Air-Canada, Beacon-Street, boyfriend, businessman, cake, deaf, fireplace, green-tea, highway, letter, self, work,

inflected: bone, car, couple, cried, die, dying, fans, friend, friends, friends, girl, glove, going, guy, Guys, guys, happened, hardest, hive, kid, kids, leaving, leaving, listen, older, pain, problem, rape, relationships, seeing, talk, talk, thing, tonight's, van,

derivation: done, economist, geeky, married, nuts, relationship, surprising,

NLLT example number: 1a, 1b, 1c, 1d, 1e, 3a, 3b, 3c, 3d, 3e, 3f, 4a, 4b, 4c, 5a, 8, 9b, 9c, 10, 11b, 12, 13, 16, 17, 18a, 18b, 26, 27b, 31a, 31b, 31c, 31d, 31e, 31f, 31g, 31h, 32a, 32b, 32c, 32d, 32e, 32f, 33a, 33b, 36a, 36b, 36c, 36d, 36e, 36f, 37, 37c, 38a, 38b, 38d, 38e, 40a, 40b, 41a, 41b, 41c, 41d, 42b, 43b, 63b, 66a, 66b, 66c, 84a, 84b, 84c, 84d,