Jane M. Waterman
Associate Professor

Zoology Ph.D., 1994
University of Minnesota



Ph.D. - Zoology, 1994. University of Minnesota.
M.Sc. - Zoology, 1985. University of Alberta.
B.Sc. (Honours) - Zoology, 1981. University of Guelph.


My research has focused on the selective factors that influence the evolution of sociality and mating systems. The species diversity of squirrels and other small mammals allows me to continue to pursue investigations into the environmental factors affecting social and mating systems. By comparing the intra- and interspecific variation in behavioral development, dispersal, reproduction, life history and social structure, the significance of various selective factors on the evolution of sociality can be ascertained. I am currently studying the behavior of two species of ground squirrels living in the Namib desert of Namibia, Africa. I also study male grouping in the polar bear, a marine species in which amicable male groups form. Such all-male groups are quite rare among mammals and thus provide an excellent opportunity to gain important insights into selective forces leading to sociality. Human-polar bear interactions are another focus of my research, in order to provide data for the sound management and conservation of this species.

Peer-Reviewed Publications

Pettitt BA,Waterman JM. 2011. The mechanisms of reproductive suppression in a low-skew cooperative breeder. In Press. Journal of Mammalogy.

Eisenberg DA, Noss RF, Waterman JM, Main MB. 2010. The distribution, abundance, and habitat use of the Big Cypress Fox Squirrel (Sciurus niger avicennia). In Press. Southeastern Naturalist.

Anderson CR, da Vitoria Lobo N, Roth JD, Waterman JM. 2010. A computer-aided photo-identification system based on image pattern recognition with an application to polar bears using whisker spot patterns. In Press. Journal of Mammalogy.

Blowers TE, Waterman JM, Kuhar CW, Bettinger TL. 2010. Female Nile hippopotamus (Hippopotamus amphibius) space use in a naturalistic exhibit. In Press. Zoo Biology.

Waterman JM. 2010. The adaptive function of masturbation in a promiscuous African ground squirrel. PLoS ONE. 5: e13060 1-7.

Hillegass MA, Waterman JM, Roth JD. 2010 The costs of parasitism on the reproduction of a social ground squirrel. Behav. Ecol. 21(4) 696-700. doi:10.1093/beheco/arq042

Nadelson LS, Walters L, Waterman JM. 2010. Course integrated undergraduate research experiences structured at different levels of inquiry. J STEM Educ. 11:27-44.

Blowers TE, Waterman JM., Kuhar C, Bettinger T. 2010. Social behaviours of a group of female Nile hippos (Hippopotamus amphibius). Journal of Ethology. 28:287-294.

Manjerovic MB, Waterman JM, Hoffman EA, Parkinson CL. 2009. Characterization of nine microsatellite loci in the Cape ground squirrel, Xerus inauris, and their cross-utility in other species. In: Permanent Genetic Resources added to Molecular Ecology Resources database 1 January 2009- 30 April 2009. Molecular Ecology Resources 9(5): 1375-1379.

Unck C, Waterman JM, Verburgt L, Bateman PW. 2009. Quantity versus quality: How does level of predation threat affect Cape ground squirrel vigilance? Animal Behaviour. 78:625–632

Pettitt BA, Waterman JM, Wheaton C. 2008. Assessing the effects of resource availability and parity on reproduction in female Cape ground squirrels: resources do not matter. Journal of Zoology. 276:291-298.

Manjerovic MB., Kinahan AA, Waterman JM, Bennett NC, Bateman PW. 2008. Structure and allometry of genitalia in males and females of a social African ground squirrel with high polygynandry. Journal of Zoology. 94:375-380.

Hillegass M, Waterman JM, Roth JR. 2008. The influence of sex and sociality on parasite loads in an African ground squirrel. Behavioral Ecology. 19:1006-1011.

Scantlebury M, Waterman JM, Bennett NC. 2008. Alternative reproductive tactics in male Cape ground squirrels Xerus inauris. Physiology & Behavior 94:359-367.

Waterman, J. M. 2007. Male mating strategies. Chapter 3 in: Wolff, J. O. and Sherman, P., eds., Rodent Societies, An Ecological and Evolutionary Perspective. University of Chicago Press, Chicago.

Scantlebury, M., J.M. Waterman, M.Hillegass, J.R. Speakman & N.C. Bennett. 2007. Energetic costs of parasitism in the Cape ground squirrel Xerus inauris. Proceedings of the Royal Society, Series B. 274: 2169-2177.

Anderson, C.J., J. D. Roth & J. M. Waterman. 2007. Can whisker spot patterns be used to identify individual polar bears? Journal of Zoology (London). 273 : 333-339.

Waterman, J. M. & J. D. Roth. 2007. Interspecific associations of Cape ground squirrels with two mongoose species: benefit or cost? Behavioral Ecology & Sociobiology. 61:1675-1683.

Jackson, T.P., Waterman, J. M. & N.C. Bennett. 2007. Pituitary LH responses to single doses of exogenous GnRH in female social Cape ground squirrels, Xerus inauris, exhibiting low reproductive skew. Journal of Zoology (London). 273: 8-13.

Belton, L., Ball N., Waterman J.M., & Bateman, P.W. 2007. Trying to make scents of it all: do Cape ground squirrels (Xerus inauris) show avoidance of predator olfactory cues? African Zoology. 42: 135-138.

Pettitt, B. A., C. J. Wheaton & J. M. Waterman. 2007. Effects of storage treatment on fecal steroid hormone concentrations of a rodent, the Cape ground squirrel (Xerus inauris). General & Comparative Endocrinology. 150:1-11.

Bouchie, L., N.C. Bennett, T. Jackson & J.M. Waterman. 2006. Are Cape Ground squirrels, Xerus inauris, induced or spontaneous ovulators? Journal of Mammalogy 87(1):60-66. Download

Skurski, D. & J.M. Waterman. 2005. Xerus inauris. Mammalian Species 781: 1-4.

Herron, M., J.M. Waterman & C.L. Parkinson. 2005. The phylogeography of two species of Xerines in southern Africa. Molecular Ecology 14:2773-2788. Download

Rabatsky, A.M. & J.M. Waterman. 2005. Non-rattling defensive tail display in the dusky pygmy rattlesnake, Sistrurus miliarius barbouri: A previously undescribed behavior. Herpetological Review 36: 236-238.

Rabatsky, A.M. & J.M. Waterman. 2005. Ontogenetic shifts and sex differences in caudal luring in the dusky pygmy rattlesnake, Sistrurus miliarius barbouri. Herpetologica 61:87-91.

Waterman, J.M. & M. Herron. 2004. Xerus princeps. Mammalian Species 751:1-3.

Herron, M. & J.M. Waterman. 2004. Xerus erythropus. Mammalian Species 748:1-4.

Eckhardt, G. & Waterman, J.M. 2004. Pocket Observer 2.0. Animal Behaviour 67:805-806.

Eckhardt, G. & Waterman, J.M. 2004. The Observer Video-Pro 4.1 and 5.0 Software Package. Animal Behaviour 67:373-375.

Waterman, J.M. 2002. Delayed maturity, group fission and the limits of group size in female Cape ground squirrels. The Journal of Zoology (London) 256(1):113-120. Download

Waterman, J.M. & M.B. Fenton. 2000. The effect of drought on the social structure and use of space in Cape ground squirrels, Xerus inauris. EcoScience 7:131-136.

Fenton, M.B., J.O. Whitaker Jr., M.J. Vonhof, J.M. Waterman, W.A. Pedro, L.M.S. Aguiar, J.E. Baumgarten, S. Bouchard, D.M. Faria, C.V. Portfors, I.L. Rautenbach, W. Scully and M. Zortea. 1999. The diets of bats from southeastern Brazil: the relation to echolocation and foraging behaviour. Revta. bras. Zool. 16:1081-1085.

Waterman, J.M. 1998. Mating tactics of male Cape ground squirrels (Xerus inauris): consequences of year-round breeding. Animal Behaviour 56:459-466. Download

Fenton, M.B., C.V. Portfors, I.L. Rautenbach, & J.M. Waterman. 1998. Compromises: sound frequencies used in echolocation by aerial feeding bats. Canadian Journal of Zoology 76:1174-1182.

Fenton, M.B., J.M. Waterman, J.D. Roth, E. Lopez & S.E. Fienberg. 1998. Tooth breakage and diet: a comparison of bats and carnivores. The Journal of Zoology (London) 246:83-88.

Waterman, J.M. 1997. Why do male Cape ground squirrels live in groups? Animal Behaviour 53:809-817. Download

Waterman, J.M. 1996. Reproductive biology of a tropical, non-hibernating ground squirrel. Journal of Mammalogy 77:134-146. Download

Waterman, J.M. 1995. The social organization of the Cape ground squirrel. Ethology 101:130-147. Download

Waterman, J.M. 1992. The use of space by yearling Columbian ground squirrels before male dispersal. Canadian Journal of Zoology 70:2490-2493.

Waterman, J.M., A. Desroches, & S. Hannon. 1989. A case of polyandry in the black-capped chickadee. Wilson Bulletin 101:351-355.

Waterman, J.M. 1988. Social play in free-ranging Columbian ground squirrels, Spermophilus columbianus. Ethology 77:225-236.

Waterman, J.M. 1986. Behaviour and use of space by juvenile Columbian ground squirrels (Spermophilus columbianus). Canadian Journal of Zoology 64:1121-1127.

Waterman, J.M. 1984. Infanticide in the Columbian ground squirrel, Spermophilus columbianus. Journal of Mammalogy 65:137-138.

Non-Peer Reviewed Publications

Waterman, J.M. 2011. Xerus erythropus. In: Mammals of Africa, Vol. 3. Eds. D. Happold, J. Kingdon & T. Butynksi. Academic Press. In Press.

Waterman, J.M. 2011. Xerus inauris. In: Mammals of Africa, Vol. 3. Eds. D. Happold, J. Kingdon & T. Butynksi. Academic Press. In Press.

Waterman, J.M. 2011. Xerus princeps. In: Mammals of Africa, Vol. 3. Eds. D. Happold, J. Kingdon & T. Butynksi. Academic Press. In Press.

Waterman, J.M. 2011. Xerus rutilus. In: Mammals of Africa, Vol. 3. Eds. D. Happold, J. Kingdon & T. Butynksi. Academic Press. In Press.

Waterman, J.M., B.A. Pettitt & M. E. Manjerovic. 2006.Cape ground squirrels. BBC Wildlife. Vol 24(7): 16-25.

Pettitt, B. & J.M. Waterman. 2004. Environmental influences on the social structure of the Cape ground squirrel (Xerus inauris). Roan News 2004(1):12-14.

Waterman, J.M. 1993. Out on a limb in the Kalahari. Imprint 10(3):1-6. Bell Museum of Natural History, University of Minnesota.

Cape ground squirrel