Hunt Lake Trail Species

The Hunt Lake trail is a 12 km (return) trail found in the Whiteshell provincial park. The trail starts at the eastern end of pth 44 (at Hunt Lake) and follows the shore of West Hawk Lake (map). There are a variety of cliffs and bluffs with well sheltered ravines between. Small marsh/swamp and lake shore ecosystems. This trail provides a very good variety of plants to see, including some rare and uncommon species.

This species list was done for a Manitoba Naturalists Society (MNS) walk on July 20, 2002. The list was created from personal observations on a short 3 hour walk with my family on July 6, 2002. Some additional information came from a Lichen workshop during April 2002. It is not a complete list but it is reasonably representative.

The existence of a number of cedar groves (Thuja occidentalis) with a dense mat of mosses and Bishop's-cap around their feet is quite interesting. The distribution of cedars in Manitoba is itself interesting, there is a large disjunct from the whiteshell to Winnipeg (Birds Hill Park) then to north end of Lake Winnipegosis.

On the dryer cliff tops you find the last of the eastern white pine (Pinus strobus). This beautiful tree is used extensively for fine finishing because of its uniform grain and minimal shrinkage. It grows to be the tallest conifer in eastern Canada.

Names provided here generally follow Budd's Flora of the Canadian Prairie Provinces (1979) with additions from various other sources.


Trees/Shrubs (over 1m)
Abies balsamea (L.) Mill. Falsam Fir. The best christmas tree! Resin/pitch easy to get, blisters. Heated or boiled when cooled similar to apoxy. Nice tea, edible inner bark, as most trees.
Acer spicatium Lam. White maple sometimes mountain maple, very common.
Amelanchier alnifolia Nutt. Saskatoon. While these are found in the Canadian shield I always fondly remember pies on the prairies.
Betula papyrifera Marsh. Paper - Canoe Birch. Don't peel the bark Canoes, Syrup,
Cornus rugosa Lam. Spotted Dogwood. You also find Cornus stolonifera commonly in this area.
Corylus cornuta Marsh. Beaked Hazelnut. The nuts from this common shrub are a wonderful treat in the late summer - if you can get them before the squirrels and worms.
Fraxinus nigra Marsh. Black Ash
Juniperus communis L. Juniper The berries like cones are used to make gin and flavor some foods. People with kidney problems and pregnant women should avoid.
Larix laricina (DuRoi) K.Koch. Tamarack. The only deciduous conifer in Manitoba - beautiful gold come the fall. Soft needles. Fence posts. Slow growing. Tea of leaves high in Vit C. Inner bark used as poltice and tea for variety of topicals. Small roots used to tie things like canoes and other things together.
Myrica gale L. Sweet gale. Fragrant leaves can be used to replace bay leaves.
Picea glauca (Moench) Voss. White Spruce. Boiled pitch used to seal joints add lard/fat to make less brittle. Roots used to stitch and make baskets. Look also for black spruce (Picea mariana).
Pinus banksiana Lamb. Jack Pine. Often cones will not open except under high heat (cone serotiny)
Pinus strobus L. Eastern White Pine Red pine (Pinus resinosa) may also be found.
Populus balsamifera L. Balsam Poplar.
Populus tremuloides Michx. Aspen Poplar. Very common 'weedy' but wonderful clonal tree.
Quercus macrocarpa Michx. Bur Oak. Acorns for food, bark high in tannins.
Ribes americanum Mill. Wild currant. Dressing for salads additional berry.
Ribes glandulosum Grauer. Skunkberry. The name is appropriate when you smell the glandular fruit.
Rosa acicularis Lindl. Prickly Rose. Also look for Rosa woodsi with well defined spines below the stipules and Rosa blanda without any bristles or thorns.
Salixsp. This is probably Salix discolor but I did not key. This and P. tremuloides provide medicinal tea for fever and pain
Shepherdia canadensis (L.) Nutt. Canada Buffaloberry also called soapberry because of the foaming properties of its berries.
Symphoricarpos albus (L.) Blake Snowberry
Thuja occidentalis L. Eastern White Cedar. I can't help but think of wooden chests and saunas. Disjunct distribution.

Other vascular

Broad Leaf (includes some monocots and low woody species)
Actea rubra (Ait.) Willd. Red Baneberry - also called dolls eyes. Very pretty shade tolerant plant with white/red berries. poison.
Agastache foeniculum (Pursh) Ktze. Giant-hyssop. Makes nice tea.
Anemone canadensis L. Canada anemone
Anemone cylindrica A. Gray Long-fruited anemone
Apocynum androsaemifolium L. Spreading Dogbane. Very common poison.
Aquilegia canadensis L. Wild Columbine.
Arctostaphylos uva-ursi (L.) Spreng. Bland fruit but used in pemican and extending other fruits. Some smoke leaves to stretch tobacco
Artemisia frigida Willd. Pasture sage
Aster sp There are many here but they were not flowering and mostly only basal leaves
Athyrium filix-femina (L.) Roth Lady fern
Botrychium virginianum (L.) Swartz. Virginia grape fern.
Bromus inermis Leyss. Smooth brome.
Calla palustris L. Water calla. Poison.
Caltha palustris L. Marsh-Marigold. Poison.
Campanula rotundifolia L. Harebell Often called blue bell.
Chimaphila umbellata (L.) Bart. Prince's Pine or Pipsissewa. urinary antiseptic properties. Used to flavor root beer and traditional beers.
Chrysanthemum leucanthemum L. Ox-eye Daisy
Cicuta bulbifera L. Water-hemlock Note twice pinnate leaves
Circae alpina L. Small Enchanter's-nightshade
Cirsium arvense (L.) Scop. Canada thistle Introduced
Clintonia borealis (Ait.) Raf Bluebead Lily
Cornus canadensis L. Bunchberry. Berries used as fruit extender
Diervilla lonicera Mill. Bush Honeysuckle
Dryopteris disjuncta (Rupr.) Morton. Oakfern (note change in name)
Epilobium angustifolium L. Fireweed.
Equisetum arvense L. Common horsetail. Pot scruber
Fragaria virginiana Dene. Smooth wild strawberry.
Galium boreale L. Northern Beadstraw.
Galium trifidum L. Small Bedstraw.
Heuchera richardsonii R. Br. Alumroot
Impatiens capensis Meerb. Spotted touch-me-not
Iris vesicolor L. Blue Flag
Lathyrus ochroleucus Hook. Cream-colored vetchling
Lathyrus venosus Muhl. Wild peavine
Linnaea borealis L. Twinflower
Lonicera dioica L. Twining honeysuckle
Lycopodium clavatum L. Running-pine.
Lysimachia ciliata L. Fringed loosestrife
Lysimachia thyrsiflora L. (note name change) Tufted Loosestrife
Maianthemum canadense Desf. Wild Lily-of-the-Valley
Mitella nuda L. Bishop's-cap
Moneses uniflora (L.) Gray. One-flowered wintergreen
Petasites palmatus (Ait.) A. Gray Palmate-leaved Colt's-foot
Plantago major L. Common plantain
Polypodium vulgare L. Common rock tripe
Pteridium aquilinum (L.) Kuhn. Bracken fern
Pyrola asarifolia Michx. Pink wintergreen
Pyrola virens Schweigg. Greenish-flowered wintergreen
Rubus idaeus L. Wild Red Raspberry
Rubus pubescens Raf. Dewberry. There are never lots of fruit but when found it is a real treat.
Sanicula marilandica L. Snakeroot
Scirpus microcarpus Pers. Small-fruited bulrush
Senecio sp. Groundsel
Sium suave Walt. Note once pinnate leaves in later above water leaves
Sonchus arvensis L. Perennial sow-thistle
Sparganium eurycarpum Engelm. Broad-fruited Bur-reed
Streptopus roseus Michx. Rose mandarin or twistedstalk.
Taraxacum officinale Webe. Dandelion
Trientalis borealis Raf. Northern Starflower
Vaccinium angustifolium Ait. Blueberry. Time for muffins and pies - or just sprinkle on your morning cereal. Blueberries grow best in recently burned/cleared areas so there are not many on this trail.
Viburnum rafinesquianum Schultes. Downy arrowwood
Vicia americana Muhl. American vetch
Viola Violets There are various violets found along the trail.

Grass Like
Agropyron sp.
Carex canescens L. Short sedge
Carex gracillima Schw. Slender Sedge
Carex intumescens Rudge Swollen Sedge
Carex pseudo-cyperus L. Cyperus-like Sedge
Carex stipata Muhl. Awl-fruited sedge
Glyceria sp. Manna Grass.
Juncus longistylis Torr. Long-styled rush
Phleum pratense L. Timothy
Poa pratensis L. Kentucky blue-grass

Brachythecium sp
Climacium dendroides Common tree moss
Dicranum polysetum Electric eels or wavy dicranum
Hylocomium splendens Stair step moss
Plagiomnium cuspidatum Woodsy leafy moss
Pleurozium schreberi Big red stem
Polytrichum juniperinum Juniper hair-cap
Polytrichum sp. Hair-cap moss
Ptilium crista-castrensis Knight's plume
Rhytidium rugosum Pipecleaner moss or crumpled-leaf moss
Thuidium abietinum Wiry fern moss
Thuidium recognitum Hook leaf fern moss

Arthonia sp.
Cladonia amaurocraea
Cladonia cenotea
Cladonia coniocraea
Cladonia rangiferina
Cladonia subulata
Cladonia turgida
Dermatocarpon moulinsii
Dermatocarpon sp.
Flavoparmelia baltimorensis
Ochrolechia sp.
Parmelia sp.
Peltigera aphthosa
Peltigera sp.
Punctelia reducta
Punctelia subrudecta
Puntelia sp.
Ramalina pollinaria
Ramalina sp.
Umbilicaria muehlenbergii
Umbilicaria sp.
Xanthoria sp.


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Last modified: Sat Oct 23 11:10:14 2010