It is possible to have more than one constriction gesture, that
is, it's possible to narrow the vocal tract at two or more places
at the same time. Some examples we have seen of this in English
- [w]: a simultaneous dorso-velar approximant and bilabial
approximant (or lip rounding)
- dark :
a simultaneous apico-alveolar lateral approximant
and dorso-velar central approximant
simultanous postalveolar approximant, pharyngeal
approximant, and lip rounding.
While nasality and the state of the glottis are properties of the
entire consonant, we have to answer four of the questions
separately for each constriction:
- active articulator
- passive articulator
- constriction degree
Multiple articulations are often classified as double
articulations and secondary articulations on the basis
of whether the two constrictions are equal in degree.
Double articulations are those cases where the two constriction
gestures have an equal degree of constriction:
Double articulations without their own symbol can be transcribed
by giving the symbols for each articulation and putting the tie
symbol above them.
- both are stops. Several African languages have "labio-velar"
stops -- doubly articulated bilabial and velar stops.
- both are fricatives. A simultaneous  and [x] occurs in so
vastly many of the world's languages (namely Swedish) that IPA
gives it its own symbol: .
Secondary articulations are approximants that are articulated at
the same time as a stop or a fricative (or a lateral
approximant), which is the primary articulation.
Secondary articulations are often closely related to vowels.
The common secondary articulations are: